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humans desire consistency
dissonance is created by inconsistencies
dissonance motivates efforts to achieve consonance
coping w/ dissonance
change ration of consonant to dissonant cognitions
alter importance of dissonant cognitions
change info to make cognitions consistent
people say something in public that is inconsistent with what they think in private
-testability of the theory- difficult to falsify
-if the attitude didn't change, a researcher could just conclude that there must not have been any/sufficient dissonance
•alternate hypotheses can't be ruled out
-concept of dissonance may be confounded
post decision dissonance
strong doubts experienced after making an important close call decision that is difficult to reverse
best way to stimulate an attitude change in others is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattitudinal behavior
dissonance exists if individuals behavior is inconsistent with self concept
consonance exists in individual behavior is consistent with self concept
person kno ahead of time that his or her action will have negative consequences for some1 else and yet still choose 2 do negative action
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