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19 terms

Cognitive dissonance theory

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cognitive dissonance theory
examples relationships among cognitions
cognition
bits of knowledge (attitude, behavior, belief)
consanance
cognitions follow from or fit with each other (equilibrium)
dissonance
cognitions out of balance (disequilibrium)
irrelevance
cognitions imply nothing about one another(most cognitions)
assumptions
humans desire consistency
dissonance is created by inconsistencies
dissonance motivates efforts to achieve consonance
factors including magnitude of dissonance
degree of importance
degree of ratio
personal rationale
coping w/ dissonance
change ration of consonant to dissonant cognitions
alter importance of dissonant cognitions
change info to make cognitions consistent
cognitive dissonance and perception
perception is based on selection
selective exposure
seeking consistent info not already present
selective attention
looking at consistent info once it is there
selective interpretation
interpreting ambiguous info so it becomes consistent
selective retention
remembering/learning consistent info more readily than inconsistent info
limitations
people say something in public that is inconsistent with what they think in private
-testability of the theory- difficult to falsify
-if the attitude didn't change, a researcher could just conclude that there must not have been any/sufficient dissonance
•alternate hypotheses can't be ruled out
-concept of dissonance may be confounded
post decision dissonance
strong doubts experienced after making an important close call decision that is difficult to reverse
minimal justification
best way to stimulate an attitude change in others is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattitudinal behavior
self consistency
dissonance exists if individuals behavior is inconsistent with self concept
consonance exists in individual behavior is consistent with self concept
personal responsibility
person kno ahead of time that his or her action will have negative consequences for some1 else and yet still choose 2 do negative action
self affirmation
high self esteem is a resource for dissonance reduction