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ANS 415 Ch 4
Terms in this set (28)
What does ruminant salvia do?
1. Maintain rumen pH
2. Maintain rumen liquid environment
3. Source of nitrogen (urea) to rumen microbes
What is the optimal rumen pH?
rumen content is ______ water
What happens to saliva production as dietary forage level increases?
saliva production increases
What happens to saliva production as forage particle length increases?
Saliva production increases
What is the % of total stomach capacity of a newborn ruminamnt?
20% rumen; 60% abomasum
What is the % of total stomach capacity of a mature ruminamnt?
Where are most of the nutrients digested in a ruminant?
rumen - through fermentation
What are the end products of rumen fermentation?
1. VFAs (from CHO digestion)
2. Ammonia, AA, peptides (from protein digestion)
Where are the majority of VFA's absorbed?
80% are absorbed in the rumen
What are the functions of the omasum?
regulate feed passage to abomasum
What is the normal pH of the abomasum?
What is the esophageal groove?
A muscular tube that functions to transport liquids from the base of esophagus to the abomasum thus bypassing the rumen fermentation
What are the 3 zones in the rumen?
lower layer (rumen floor)
middle layer (rumen mat)
To pass through to the omasum, digest must be what?
small in particle size and high density
How does feed particle size decrease and density increase?
Microbe digestion and rumination (chewing)
What is the rumination time?
8-14 hours per day
What should you feed more of: forages or grains?
The lower the quality of the hay the _____ rumination will take
What is the difference between NDF and eNDF?
eNDF is the fiber that has the ability to stimulate rumination.
What is the most important factor in determining eNDF?
particle size: must be less than .75 inches
What are the major gasses release?
mathane (CH4) and CO2
What are the gas percentages in the rumen?
CO2 - 65%
CH4 - 27%
O2 - 0.6%
At what pH does most bacteria function well at?
pH > 6.0
What is the importance of rumen microbes?
1. Digestion (fermentation) of ingested feed
2. Source of protein to ruminants
3. Source of some vitamins (B-vit and vitamin K)
What is the feed broken down into?
NDF, pectin → VFAs
Starch, sugars → VFAs
Proteins → NH3 and AA
> ___% of dietary sugars and ___% of dietary starches are degraded in the rumen.
___ % of dietary NDF degraded in the rumen.
> 98% of dietary sugars and 50-90% of dietary starches are degraded in the rumen.- 30-80% of dietary NDF degraded in the rumen
What is the purpose of the VFAs?
used as energy source by the cow tissues
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ANS 415 CH 1
ANS 415 Ch 3
ANS 415 CH 2
ANS 316 Test 1
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