Civil Rights


Terms in this set (...)

Korematsu v. US (1944)
Upheld as constitutional the internment of Americans with Japanese descent during WWII.
Rational Basis
In U.S. constitutional law, the lowest level of scrutiny applied by courts deciding constitutional issues through judicial review. (Sexual orientation, gender)
Suspect Class
category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Site of the first modern women's rights convention, and the start of the organized fight for women's rights in US history. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiments modeled on the Declaration of Independence listing the many injustices against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Era of Doldrums
Era of flappers, drinking, dancing, makeup, etc.
National Organization for Women
ERA Amendment
that was proposed in 1982 that would give equality of rights regardless of sex,Congress passed it but it was never ratified by the states
Title IX
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
13th Amendment
Abolition of slavery w/o compensation for slave-owners
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Separate but equal
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be. Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine and would eventually led to the desegregation of schools across the South
the process of taking legal action
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Bakke v. University of California (1978)
In this 5-4 ruling the Supreme Court outlawed quotas
and ordered that Alan Bakke be admitted to medical school. But the court also upheld the principle of affirmative action, explaining that race or ethnicity could be counted as a plus in an applicant's file as long as it did "not insulate the individual from comparison with other candidates."
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Allowed the use of race as a general factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan
Seattle school decision
The best way for race to stop being a factor is to stop using race
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
de jure segregation
segregation by law
Lav v Nichols
Schools should teach a kid's primary language
Prop 227 (1998)
Restricted bilingual education in CA
Prop 58
Kids learning English
Won't need a waiver to take
Bilingual classes
Title II
No discrimination in public accommodations
Title VII
forbids discrimination in public employment
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Americans with Disabilities Act
eminent domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use if they give compensation
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
Same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry.