In 1869, John Wesley Powell was traveling down the Colorado River and and noted that Western US was hostile for farming unless dams were constructed. For the past 100 years, this concept has been put to use by using the Colorado River's water, which runs 2,300 km from Northern Colorado to the mouth of the Gulf of California and ends in a rich delta in Mexico. It is tamed by a gigantic plumbing system with several major dams and reservoirs, 100s of smaller dams and a network of aqueducts and canals that supply water to farmers, ranchers, and cities. It is divided into 2 sections: Upper Basin (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico) and Lower Basin (Arizona, Nevada, and California). The best solutions to this challenge emphasize conservation, which is cheaper, faster and easier to implement than costly, wasteful new pipelines or impractical, energy-guzzling systems to turn salt water into drinking water. Conservation is the practical, flexible, common-sense option. It relies on market-oriented solutions, such as water banking, in which water users are compensated to save water and these savings are dedicated for later use when the need is greater. These approaches will ensure we have the water we need for a thriving economy and prosperous communities, and also protect the river and the ecosystems, wildlife and businesses it supports.