Upgrade to remove ads
AP Comp Gov: Nigeria
Vocab for Nigeria
Terms in this set (54)
He was a military dictator from 1993-98 responsible for a huge degree of corruption during his reign. He died of a heart attack, supposedly while with a prostitute. It was called the "coup from heaven." Civilian leadership ensued under elected President Obasanjo
is a Nigerian politician, businessman and philanthropist, who served as the 2nd elected Vice-President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007, on the platform of the People's Democratic Party (PDP), with President Olusegun Obasanjo.
Action Congress - AC (formerly Allience for Democracy - AD)
This party gained a lot of support from the Christian Yoruba in the Southwest. They are the "plus" of Nigeria's 2-plus party system (ANPP and PDP are major parties)
Gains a lot of support from northern Muslims. Ther candidate for the elections of 2003 and 2007 was their leader, Muhammad Buhari. In the past he had supported the brutal dictatorship of Sani Abacha, and corruptly enriched many ANPP members.
Military Dictator from 1985-94. Corruption undermined legitimacy.
In 1967, three Eastern States (predominantly Igbo) held a consultative assembly and authorized the creation of a separate country, The Republic of Biafra, under the command of an Igbo colonel, Odomegwu Ojukwu. They took possession of Nigeria's oil fields. Ultimately, during the Biafra War Biafran fighters were worn down and defeated by the Nigerian Army under the leadership of Yakuba Gowan in December of 1969. It was a very brutal war with approximately ½ million Igbo deaths (civilian and military). Gowan brought the eastern states back into the federation as equals, and divided the federation into 12 states.
It was established as an indigenous jihadist group in 2009 in Northeastern Nigeria. In Hausa, Boko Haram is literally translated as "western education is sinful." It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws and modern science, and they seek to establish Sharia Law in the country. Their attacks on civilians, churches, and schools have become a serious problem that President Goodluck Jonathan's government is trying confront.
Leader of the ANPP party. Ran for president in 2003 and 2007. In the past he had supported the brutal dictatorship of Sani Abacha, and corruptly enriched many ANPP members.
Institutions that develop in free societies that are outside of government control and interference. They tend to reinforce adherence to laws and help the population in areas where government control is not viewed as appropriate (Professional Associations, schools, churches, youth organizations, etc). Despite attempts by the state to stamp out civil society, it continued in part because the government was too weak to respond effectively to the needs of the citizens. Members of the civil society are mostly associated with corporatism and clientelism, but could form the basis for a viable democracy.
This defined as the acceptance of a constitution as a guiding set of principles. This quality is not the case in Nigeria, where there have been many constitutions and there is no consensus of respect for the constitution or how political power should be excercised.
The government allows political input from selected interest groups outside of the government structure. Example NNPC.
defined as contact with and spread of customs and beliefs of other people. Most important was the diffusion of Islam, as change that was gradual, with conversion to religion occurring slowly over time.
Nigeria has between 250 and 400 separate ethnic groups with their own array of customs, languages and religions. The three largest groups- the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo have very little in common, and generally cannot speak one another's languages. They live separately in their own enclaves, and virtually no contacts take place among the groups.
The establishment of 36 states was an attempt to defuse ethnic tensions and still remain one country. This may be a good system, but under military dictatorships, the authority of the states was not respected and the state remained unitary in function.
The tendency to fall apart along ethnic, regional, and religious lines. Directly relates to the term "cleavages"
He is a member of PDP, former governor of Bayelsa State, who was sworn in as VP under Yar'Adua in 2007. When Yar'Adua fell ill and left to get treatment in a Saudi Arabian hospital, the Federal court confirmed Goodluck Jonathan as Acting President. Yar'Adua returned to Nigeria and died in 2010, but Jonathan remained as Acting President. He won election on his own right in 2011.
It is one of the three largest ethnic groups. They are the dominant group in the Northwest. This area is predominantly Muslim, and practices Sharia Law. Conflict with Christians is fairly common, and often bloody.
Nigeria has a very high rate of HIV/AIDS with estimates that 1 out of every 11 HIV AIDS sufferers lives in Nigeria. It has taken a heavy toll on African society in general, and Nigerian society/economy specifically. The government has generally made AIDS a secondary priority, leaving much of the challenge to underfunded NGOs. Under Obasanjo, the government made medication available to a small number of citizens through a small number of Federal clinics.
Police force charged with enforcing Islamic principles. Recently, they have been the target of a federal crackdown. Compare with Komitehs and the Basiji Militia of Iran. However, Nigeria is not a theocracy.
The Igbos are of southeastern Nigeria, where they lived in scattered villages in the rain forest and the Niger Delta (image of being primitive). Under the British the loyal Igbos got involved in business, education, the civil service, and the military which led to wealth and status. They were resented by the Yoruba in the SW and the Hausa-Fulani in the north. Igbos came to dominate commercial life in Nigeria (AKA, The Jews of Nigeria) Attempted and failed to break away in the Biafra War
Employed by the British to govern Nigeria. With only a few hundred British officials in place, they controlled the vast area of Nigeria by working with and through local chiefs and princes (giving them rewards for service to England (a form of co-optation).
this refers to the unreported incomes from small scale trade and subsistence agriculture. Most Nigerians struggle with the informal economy.
The Independent National Election Commission was created after the death of dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. In order to run candidates for the election in 1999, a party had to qualify by earning at least 5% of the votes in 2/3rds of the states in December 1998 local elections. This practice cut the number of parties to three, and also limited the number of parties to 5 in the presidential elections in 2003. The INEC was widely accused of corruption in 2007 for having left off the ballot the name of VP Abubakar. However, his disqualification was overturned by the Supreme Court.
Northeastern group (smaller than major ones), who are also primarily Muslim.
Where senior government officials are supported by a broader base of loyal junior officials. State control of resources means that those in the pyramid get the spoils, and they alone have access to wealth and influence. (Examples include the Kaduna Mafia, Babangida's Boys, and Abacha's Boys.
This stands for the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta. They demand compensation for environmental damage caused by oil industry. They frequently sabotage pipelines and kidnap foreign oil workers.
It is a lucrative business unto itself, so MEND is not the only group taking captives. In the United States, Companies with subsidiaries in Nigeria take out kidnapping insurance and hire kidnapping consultants, to serve as advisors and negotiators for the release of victims in exchange for money.
*The largest # of kidnapping cases in the world is in Mexico, but Nigeria is second. You are more likely to be killed in Mexico as a kidnap victim than in Nigeria.
"military in barracks"
periods in Nigeria's history where the military is not in control of government and society. Currently in the longest period of civilian rule.
"military in government"
When the military is in control of government and society. In the history of Nigeria since independence in 1960, military control has been more often the case.
The National Assembly is bicameral. The upper house is the Senate with 109 seats (each of the 36 states have 3 Senate seats, plus one for the Federal Capital in Abuja) and a 4 year term. The lower house is the House of Representative which has 360 seats, 10 for each state. Each seat represents a single member district, and it is a 4 year term.
"the national question"
Nigeria has been independent since 1960, but there is no consensus as to how the country should be governed, and even if Nigeria should be one nation.
Non-government Organizations. Transparency International is an example.
This is the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. It engages in joint ventures with foreign companies (rentier state), but the NNPC gain most of the revenue. It is a partially privately-run corporation, which is somewhat controlled by the Nigerian government (corporatism) with a reputation of corruption. Some advocate nationalization, but this would likely lead to even more corruption and inefficiency. If it were fully privatized the government would lose kick-back payments politicians are used to receiving.
*If it was managed by an international monitoring group, then perhaps revenues could be beneficially invested and used to fund a more diverse economy, and achieve a level of income substitution.
Former military general who gave up power to a civilian authority, and later, after dictatorship of Sani Abacha, was elected president of Nigeria. In 2007, he ended his term as dictated by the constitution and endorsed Yar'Adua who won. Obasanjo was one of the founders of Transparency International
They commonly provide public utilities such as water, electricity, public transportation, and agricultural subsidies. Others control major industries like steel, defense products, and petroleum. Parastatals are corporations owned by the state and designated to provide commercial and social welfare services. Theoretically they are privately owned, but their boards are appointed by government ministries, and executives are interwoven into the president's patronage system.
It is a system where the president is the head of an intricate patron-client system and dispenses government jobs and resources as rewards for supporters. This was employed by many generals who assumed leadership after military coups. Since they were repeatedly overthrown indicates that the system is unstable, pr possibly the impulse toward democracy is keeping Patrimonialism from working.
Patron-Client System (prebendalism)
Nigeria is the third example we have seen of a political culture characterized by patron-clientelism. Just as in China and Mexico, clientelism, the practice of exchanging political and economic favors among patrons and clients, is almost always accompanied by corruption. In Nigeria, in exchange for their support, a president may grant to his clients a portion of the oil revenues. Patrons are usually linked in Nigeria by ethnicity and religion.
It promotes itself as a centrist party, and was the personalistic vehicle for Olesegun Obasanjo. It is well-organized, well funded, and gains votes from many different ethnic groups. Yar'Adua was the PDP candidate in 2007 and won. Goodluck Jonathan was PDP candidate in 2011 and won.
For the House of Representatives 539 are elected from single-member districts by plurality vote. Whoever wins the most votes, wins the seat. AKA: first-past-the-post.
140 million in people in Nigeria, which makes it one of the most populous nations in the world.
Rules that a state sets in exerting its power. The institutions and practices carry over across time, even though leaders and political issues change. (Wood)
When the institutions and practices that a state sets in exerting it's influence change to something different. For example, regime change exists when a state shifts from a democracy to an authoritarian system. Regime change has occurred many times in the political history of Nigeria. Examples exist whenever there was a shift from civilian governance to military governance (e.g. From Military dictatorship under Sani Abacha to Civilian Governance under President Obasanjo (4th Republic).
Rule of LAW
It is an import from the colonial period (Western Europe) that even those who govern are expected to obey and support the laws. This has represented a challenge for Nigeria since its founding.
He was a rights activist and environmentalist, who was executed in 1995. He provided support for the founding of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP)
This is Islamic Law, which is practiced in many areas of northern Nigeria (particularly Hausa-Fulani states). In recent years there has been a trend toward moderation in terms of enforcing punishments under Sharia (stoning-to-death). The Federal government has intervened in the most public cases. This could reflect a recognition that a middle way may be possible
After Islamic Jihad was carried out in the northern region of Nigeria on orders from Islamic scholars, who were critical of the Muslim Kingdom's impurity (Borno Kingdom), the Sokoto Caliphate was established. They would clash with the British as they attempt to assert imperial political control.
When government controls parastatals, which perform important economic and social functions, and they insure that the state controls private interests as well. Parastatals are generally inefficient and corrupt, and many believe they must be disbanded if democracy is to succeed. Example of State Corporatism and Parastatal is the NEPA (Nigerian Electrical Power Association), but Nigerians joked that the initials stood for "Never Expect Power Again." When the parastatal was renamed the Power Holding Company, the new joke was that it stood for "Please Hold Candle."
Structural Adjustment Program
with the decline in world oil prices in the mid-1980s, Nigeria was forced to turn to international Financial Institutions for assistance. 1985 the Babangida government negotiated an economic Structural Adjustment program with the support of the World Bank and the IMF. The program sought to restructure and diversity the Nigerian economy so that it could decrease its dependence on oil. The government also pledged to reduce spending and to privatize its parastatals. The results of this program were mixed, but timelines for debt repayment has been restructured because Nigeria could not keep up with its payments. Para statals are still under state control, and the private economic sector has not grown significantly. Drop in oil prices since 2008 severely.
Supreme Court of Nigeria
It is located in Abuja (capital territory) in the "Three Arms Zone" (due to its proximity to offices of the presidential complex and the National Assembly). This particular court was established by the Supreme Court Act of 1990 and by Chapter VII of the 1999 Constitution. The court has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, and has the power of Judicial Review in theory. Judicial supremacy exists in that the court's rulings are binding on all courts in Nigeria. There is one Chief Justice and not more than 21 justices. They are appointed by the President on recommendation of the National Judicial Council, and they are subject to Senate confirmation.
A private organization that compiles statistics about corruption in countries around the world, which usually ranks Nigeria very low in their Transparecy Internationl Corruption Perceptions Index (published annually). In 2006, Nigeria ranked 142nd out of 146 countries in terms of how clean the government is. However, in 2008, Nigeria rose to 121st , ahead of Russia and Iran. Most people believe that Yar'Adua is not personally corrupt. (1=highly corrupt, while 10 is corruption free.) Olusegun Obasanjo was one of the organization's founders.
"true federalism" movement
Called for by the Igbo Youth movement.Promotes accelerated economic development, it unifies and binds people together, it triggers intellectual dialogue and provokes a healthy rivalry in revenue generation. These laudable goals are only achieved where the federating units are allowed free access in decision making and inputs into governance.
He was elected president in 2007 (civilian Background). He was the PDP candidate to succeed Obasanjo as President. He is Muslim. Fell ill and went to Saudi Arabia for medical treatment (2009). He has returned to Nigeria 2010 and died. His VP replacement, Goodluck Jonathan, remained asl Acting President until the Election of 2011, which he won as candidate for PDP.
One of the three largest ethnic groups of Nigeria, located in the Southwest. Yoruba are 40% Muslim, 40% Christian, and 20% devoted to native Yoruba religion
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Comparative Government Vocabulary
AP Comparative Government - Great Britain
AP Comparative Government: Unit 6 (Mexico)
Ap Comparative Government- Mexico
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
NIGERIA: Ethel Wood Vocab
Wood Newly Industrializing and Less Developed Coun…
AP Government Nigeria Vocab Words
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
BSCV301-0101 Change Leaders
BSCV301 Study Guide Cards
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
BAKTERIOLOGI - CHAPTER 01
تاريخ الفكر الاقتصادي
D&D Important Events
Itse Ilkimys 2 Chapter 3