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Week 2 - Epidemiology
Terms in this set (29)
What is epidemiology?
-The study of the distribution and determinants of disease in populations.
-Investigations usually have basic objective of describing and quantifying disease problems and seeing associations between determinants and disease
An out break of disease above normal for a region that infects many individuals at the same time and spreads through one or multiple communities
An epidemic that spreads worldwide. (ex. swine flu)
A disease that exists permanently in a particular population or region (ex. malaria)
Epidemiologic Triad: Agent
-An animate or inanimate factor that must be present or lacking for a disease or condition to develop.
-infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites)
-chemical agents ( heavy metals, toxic chemicals, pesticides)
-physical agents (radiation, heat, cold, machinery)
Epidemiologic Triad: Host
-A living species (human or animal) capable of being infected or affected by an agent
-immutable characteristics (age, sex)
-acquired characteristics (immunological status)
-lifestyle factors (diet, exercise)
Epidemiologic Triad: Environment
-All that is internal or external to a given host or agent and that is influenced and influences the host and/or agent
-climate (temperature, rainfall)
-plant and animal life (agents, reservoirs or habitats for agents)
-human population distribution (crowding, social support)
-socioeconomic factors (education, resources, access to care)
-working conditions (levels of stress, noise, satisfaction)
Risk/Population at risk
-The probability that an event will occur within a specified period of time.
-Those at more risk to get the disease due to their lifestyle, cultural practices, where they live, healthcare, food/water sources, and cleanliness
-Describes the distribution of disease, death, and other health outcomes in the population according to person, place, and time
-Provides a picture of how things are/have been and describes the who, where and when of disease patterns
-Goal is to discover the determinants of outcomes
-Deals w/factors that influence the observed patterns of health and disease and increase/decrease the risk for adverse outcomes
-Determines answers to the questions: How does the disease occur? why are some populations more affected than others? Why is it happening? What is it?
Levels of Prevention applied to the Epidemiological process: Primary
-Emphasis on health prom, risk factor reduction, or other health protective measures.
-Immunizations, public health edu, chlorination & filtration of public water supplies, legislation for seat belts
Levels of Prevention applied to the Epidemiological process: Secondary
-Focus on early detection/swift treatment
-Tx of conditions to prevent complications (removal of skin lesions, Tx of HTN)
Levels of Prevention applied to the Epidemiological process: Tertiary
-Therapeutic & rehab measures once disease is est.
-Diabetes tx & mgmt, chronic condition management, diet/exercise/periodic examination.
-Physical therapy, occupational, or speech after stroke or accident.
-Provision of high quality, appropriate, and accessible health.
What level of prevention is Screening?
Secondary prevention; screening is not a diagnostic test
Precision of measure, results are consistent from place to place, time to time, and person to person
-Correctness, accuracy; screening test is typically measured by sensitivity and specificity
Screening of Validity: Sensitivity & Specificity
-How accurately the test identifies those with the condition or trait. Represents the proportion of persons with the disease whom the test correctly identifies as positive (true positives)
-Indicates how accurately the test identifies those without the condition or trait (the proportion of persons whom the test correctly identifies as negative for the disease (true negatives)
Systematic and ongoing observation and collection of data concerning disease occurrence to describe phenomena and detect changes in frequency or distribution
Natural History of Disease
The course of the disease process from onset to resolution
Chain of Causation
Web of Causation
Recognizes the complex interrelationships of many factors interacting, sometimes in subtle ways, to increase (or decrease) the risk for disease; also associations are sometimes mutual, with lines of causality going in both directions
The resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that results if a sufficiently high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease, especially through vaccination.
How do nurses use epidemiology in community health practice?
-Provide individualized, supportive care; look at their health, disease causation, and how to both prevent and tx illness
-Use it in the community to examine factors that affect the individual, family, and population group bc it's more difficult to control these factors in the community than in the hospital
Frequency or rate of new cases of an outcome on a population; it provides an estimate of the risk of disease in that population over the period of observation
Measure of existing disease in a population at a given time
Total nonfatal cases in an at risk population
Occurrence of disease or condition due to a specific exposure; the proportion of persons who are exposed to an agent and develop the disease
Significance of infant mortality
Good indicator of country's health status; indicator of basic needs, access to care, primary prevention, etc.
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