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USH Ch.14&15 Essay Questions
Terms in this set (17)
Compare Grant & Lee
Grant: bad temper, drunk, was very come when something unexpected were to happen (if you were to awake him at 4 a.m, he would be well alert and prepared), grew up poor, very good with horses, didn't want to have carless battles with a lot of death, West Point, always determined to move forward, very compassionate towards family and friends, only general to think in Lees mind
Lee: bad temper (very grumpy), loved animals, chose own state over beliefs (turned down offer to be lead general for Union because of his loyalties with his home state), West Point, looked up to George Washington
dehumanized, involved in the capturing of John Brown (involve in confederate victories early), able to adapt to changes quickly, very clear headed and focused (put himself in other generals shoes)
Battle of Vicksburg
Grant had an advantage, marched union troops across Mississippi and captured the state capital (Jackson), the move towards the city and cut it off completely. Realizing that the situation was useless, General John Pemberton surrendered on July 4. This split the south in half and showed how successful General Grant was and lead to him becoming General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
Both union and confederate armies struggled to fight/ maneuver in the very dense forest. it was the first battle of Grant's Overland Campaign. A.P. Hill and Ewell were on parallel roads, they planned to meet Grant's troops on his march. There was supposed to be another southern general arriving so the south tried to wait and avoid as much fighting as possible until the third general (Longstreet) arrived. Ewell were pushed back down the turnpike and counterattacked but still tried to avoid as much fighting as he could until Longstreet arrived. A.P. Hill was also waiting for Longstreet but the Union started attacking, the fight went on for a while untill the woods caught fire, there was smoke and loud sounds of guns, this was very confusing for the soldiers many soldiers died because of the fire and confusion rather than the combat in that particular fight.
Lee's men, feeling confident after a previous win really felt they needed to win this battle to gain ground in the Northern Soil. He intended to collect more supplies around Pennsylvania farmlands and take the fight away from virginia. The army of the Potomac, with General Meade, moved north keeping his army between Lee and Washington D.C. Lee knowing Mead's location, moved his army towards Gettysburg.
July 1: 30,000 Confederates pushed the Union army of Potomac back to Cemetery Hill. Many men die during this. Back and forth battles
July 2: With reinforcements, overnight, formed a fish hook like shape (Union) for a defensive strategy. They had higher ground then the Confederates, and were able to scope out the situations. There were some miscommunications, leaving gaps in their defensive line, but they were secured up. Many lives were yet again lost
July 3: Lee pushes forces known as pickett's charge, through the heart of the Union troops, killing thousands of men and a pointless attack.
In the end, no one won or lost this battle, the only thing that was lost were the thousands on thousands of lives
Union: 94000 men Confederates: 71000
23000 wounded or killed from Union
28000 wounded or killed from Confederate (51000 total)
Union General: Meade
Confederate General: Lee
What convinced Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation?
Lincoln despised slavery. There was some pressure from northern civilians, union soldiers. and congress in spring of 1862. support grew from emancipation but still wasn't favored in the North. by mid-1862 Lincoln decided to act on his moral convictions. He did take advice from Secretary of state Seward, and waited for a battlefield victory (Antietam)
How do you account for the great success of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Well, once a few people started reading it others wanted to get in on it as well. It was a riveting novel and very well written. It brought the issue of slavery right into the spotlight and as people began to read it, they recommended it to their friends. So it was borrowed and passed on from person to person. It sparked controversy and it was very accurate. It made people in the North who didn't really harbor strong antislavery thoughts rethink their opinions on the matter. It sparked outrage in the South where it was banned in some cases.
How did the failure of democratic revolutions in Europe affect Americans' perspectives on their own system of government?
It most likely made them question their own system of government. It may have made them think about whether a strong national government, supporting a democratic system, would be the wisest form of government.
Discuss the role of evangelical religion in sharpening the sectional conflict between the north and south.
They both believed they had divine right over the other side. In the south the Bible lines discussing slavery were highlighted and paraded about whereas in the north the Bible verses forbidding slavery were the ones that were brought up the most in opposition to slavery. Each championed religion, God, and the Bible in favor of their side. The South especially really twisted and modified religion to try to make it seem they were being just and fair to their slaves
Between the time he was elected president in November and his inauguration in March, what options did Abraham Lincoln have for resolving the sectional crisis?
Not many. The sectional crisis was so deep it could really not be remedied. He could've tried to keep slavery contained just in the South and not allow it to spread but then if other stATES were created the southerners would be outraged. The northerns did not want slavery to spread at all or to even exist in some cases. His options were becoming so limited that war was practically inevitable
Northerners and Southerners appealed to the same American ideals in support of their respective positions. Could they both have been correct?
Depending on what side you were they both could've been correct I guess. But based on equality and the rights of human beings, black people should have been treated equally. So in that respect I believe the South was sort of off the mark. Sometimes they may have even realized what they were doing was very, very wrong but STILL tried to justify it. But in the same sense both sides were appealing to similar American ideals in support of their respective positions so one could conclude both were "right" perhaps. The southerners wanted to defend something that was so deeply entrenched in their way of life and that is reasonable. Also the southern states wanted governments run by their individual states and the north wanted a stronger national government. In that respect they could both have been "correct" as well.
How did the Union and the Confederacy compare in terms of resources, leadership, and military strategies in the period 1861-1863? What impact did these factors have on the course of the war?
Union- They had a lot more resources and they had Abraham Lincoln who led a strong national government. This allowed the economy to continue growing and thriving throughout the war. The economic boom provided updated and plentiful resources for the northern army. However, they did not have many strong leaders on the battlefield and Lincoln was continuously trying to find a commander of the army (he fired many of them). This lack of good leadership led some losses on the battlefield. Also the Union had a lot more soldiers to fight.
Confederacy- Jefferson Davis was the "president" of the confederacy and he did not do a great job at it. That is because the southern states all opted to have no national government and just have states rule. This led to disorganization and no strong leadership or ruling to occur in the south. This meant the economy struggled and the resources were not plentiful. Also they had a shortage of men (compared to the Union forces). However, they had very strong battlefield leadership. The commander of the Confederate Army, General Robert E. Lee, was a magnificent tactician and leader during the war. He was backed by other officers such as Stonewall Jackson
What was the significance of the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg? In what ways were they turning points in the Civil War?
Antietam was an extremely bloody battle that occurred in September 1862. It occurred in Maryland and the Union forces attacked the Confederate forces. It had a huge casualty total and both sides fought long and hard. McClellan led the attack and the Union attacked the Confederates very forcefully. However, the Confederates mostly held their ground and counterattacked. The battle is considered a draw because the Confederates were able to retreat and the Union did not apply pressure while they withdraw. However, this was seen as a "victory" in the eyes of the Union and gave Abraham Lincoln the courage he needed to publish and sign the Emancipation Proclamation.
Gettysburg occurred when Lee's troops marched into Pennsylvania in July 1863 and decided to charge at the Union. Lee led a well fought battle to begin with and many different places such as Devil's Den and the Peach Orchard featured heavy fighting. Pickett's charge was led by the Confederates to try and charge straight into the Union army. It was repulsed by the Union army's heavy artillery fire. This caused huge losses to the Confederate army and Lee was forced to retreat. This was the last attempt by the Confederates to play offense in the war and the rest of the time they were forced to play defense. It turned the tide of favorability of the war more on the Union side and after it the Confederates lost a lot of momentum and confidence in their fighting.
Given that the federal government was fighting a civil war, why did not European powers, other than France, take advantage of that distraction and meddle in Latin American affairs?
I believe they were encountering some revolutions of their own and economic difficulties as well. Also, they knew that the Americans could possibly stop fighting or finish the war fairly quickly. They were concerned that when this occurred the Americans would go to Latin America to fight and drive them out once again.
What effects did the Emancipation Proclamation have on the Union and Confederate causes?
It made the Confederates angry and gave them a push to try to keep fighting for what their economy depended on. It made the Union fight into one that was against slavery as well as to unify the Union once again. It encouraged more black people to fight for the cause and made it a war over the issue of slavery more than before. The Emancipation Proclamation gave a new push to people fighting on the Union side to try to win the war.
Compare and contrast the roles played by women, in the North and in the South, during the Civil War, and explain how their actions and activities aided or hindered the war effort of their respective nations.
Women in the North and South were both supposed to help out with the war. Many took up positions previously occupied by men (especially in the South where there were a shortage of men). Their position and importance was raised by the war. In the North the ladies were supportive of their husbands (although the missed them) and aided in the war effort. They led political movements to get people's spirits more into the war. In the South however after a while the women became tired with the war and perhaps hindered the war effort. Some ran away with their husbands and/or their children. Their houses were burned and the war took a real toll on them and the families they nurtured, which made many of them opposed to the war.
Sullivan Ballou made the ultimate sacrifice for his cause. Why did he fight?
He fought for his country and gave his life for the nation. He fought because he loved his country dearly and wanted to support the Union and keep it unified. He fought for something bigger than himself and something he truly believed in.
What were the causes of the war? (economic, social, political, cultural differences?)
Why was the war practically inevitable?
What was Lincoln's view on slavery at the beginning of the war? How did his view and many northerners' view on slavery change during the war?
What were the effects of the war while it was fought?
What were the effects of the war after it was fought?
Why did the Union army ultimately come out victorious?
Why did the Confederate army ultimately lose their fight for independence as a new nation that allowed slavery?
How would it be different if the Confederates were victorious?
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Ch. 19 notes
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