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The need for cough etiquette recommendations stemmed from recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks, where failure to observe simple source-control measures

clearly contributed to SARS coronavirus transmission.

Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette applies to

anyone entering a healthcare setting: patients, visitors, and staff with signs or symptoms of illness, whether diagnosed or undiagnosed, including cough, congestion, rhinorrhea, or increased production of respiratory secretions.

The components of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette include

• covering the mouth and nose during coughing and sneezing
• using facial tissues to contain respiratory secretions, with prompt disposal into a hands-free receptacle
• wearing a surgical mask when coughing to minimize contamination of the surrounding environment
• turning the head when coughing and staying at least 3 feet away from others, especially in common waiting areas
• disinfecting hands after contact with respiratory secretions

How far can a virus-laden droplet travel and still be a potential source of infection?

It can travel up to 3 feet in any direction and still be infectious.

It is appropriate to "sneeze into your sleeve" because

this reduces the transmission of airborne infection

How long can the influenza viruses survive outside a host?

At room temperature, with moderate humidity, these viruses can live 24 to 48 hours on steel and plastic, and 8 to 12 hours on cloth and facial tissues.

What is the average risk for a bloodborne pathogen/virus transmission after a needlestick injury?

Hepatitis B (HBV), 22% to 62%;
Hepatitis C (HCV), 1.8% to 7%;
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 0.3% to 0.5%

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