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Microbiology, Exam I
Terms in this set (102)
micro-organisms or microbes
organisms that are studied in microbiology
bacteria, fungi (yeasts/molds), algae, protozoa, viruses.
5 types of micro-organisms studied in microbiology
living organism that causes viruses
living organisms that don't causes viruses
normal flora/normal microbiota
organisms that colonize an area without causing disease
establish and reproduce in an area
micro-organisms that may be present for a few days or months, and may or may not cause disease
ordinarily does not cause disease, but may if given the opportunity. harmless in its normal habitat or healthy individuals
immunosuppression by drugs, immunosuppression by disease, debilitated condition, age, broad spectrum antibiotics
examples of opportunities for opportunistic pathogens
Anton Van Leeuwenhock
first person to view microbes
proved the Theory of Biogenisis, which states that life only comes from life, which applies to microbes. also demonstrated that microbes are in the air everywhere
a heating process that can kill bacteria in beer and wine
used carbolic acid (phenol) as the first disinfectant
the same organism must be isolated in every case of the disease
first step in Koch's Postulates
microbes must be grown in pure culture (that particular bacteria growing by itself in a plate)
second step of Koch's Postulates
the transfer of micro-organisms to the healthy animal must be indirect (the two test subjects cannot have any contact)
third step of Koch's Postulates
used material from a cowpox blister to prevent a young boy from contracting small pox (vaccination)
created the first synthetic drug/antimicrobial
what was the first antimicrobial and what was it used to treat
discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin
chemicals produced naturally that can inhibit the growth of another micro-organism
recombinant DNA technology
genetic change that occurs in the DNA/genetic material of the organism
proved that a particular microbe causes a particular disease
binomial nomenclature (two word naming)
scientific name of an organism
cell wall contains peptidoglycan
3 different shapes
asexual (binary fission)
if it moves, does so by flagella
coccus, bacillus, spirilliumm
3 shapes of bacteria
no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
nucleus & membrane bound organelles
get nutrition from other sources
heterotroph that gets its nutrition from dead/nonliving sources
heterotroph that gets its nutrition from living sources
organism manufactures their nutrients through photosynthesis
rarely associated with human disease
cell walls contain cellulose
sexual and asexual
no motility structures
example of a dinoflagellate associated with human illness
what is rarely associated with human disease? usually occurs from ingestion of fish and animals which contain toxins produced by _____________.
dinoflagellates and diatoms
two groups of algae
cell walls contain chitin
sexually/asexually by spores
the only multicellular organism studied in our class; filamentous
unicellular fungi that we study; non filamentous
some fungi that can grow as a mold or as a yeast, usually occurring in pathogenic fungi. temperature dependent
25 degrees C/75 degrees F (room temperature)
what temperature does pathogenic fungi have to be to be a mold?
37 degrees C/98 degrees F (body temperature)
what temperature does pathogenic fungi have to be to be a yeast?
fungal infection that is generally long-lasting due to the slow growth rate of fungi
fungal infection within the body, acquired through inhalation of spores. ALWAYS begins in lungs and spreads to other parts of the body; not contagious
fungal infections beneath the skin, acquired through direct implantation of spores into a puncture would in the skin
what fungi causes subcutaneous mycoses and lives in soil and on vegetation?
fungal infections that infect hair, skin, and nails; acquired through infected hairs and epidermal cells.
what fungi causes cutaneous mycoses and are dermatophytes? (breaks down keratin)
systemic mycoses, associated with birds because it uses bird droppings for nutrients. not carried by birds; can be fatal
rhizomes, macor, aspergillus
examples of pathogenic fungi;
common black bread mold
trichphyton, microsporum, epidermophyton
latin term of infection that causes ringworms
habitat is soil and animals
associated with bird feces (actually carried by birds)
human normal microbiota
can cause thrust, vaginitis
reproduces asexually or sexually by conjugation
*classified by locomotion (way they move)
*lack cell walls
"animal like group"
the protective capsule that allows some protozoa to survive unfavorable conditions is called?
what causes more protozoa infections around the world than any other protozoa?
example of a parasitic protozoa
movement is by pseudopods (cytoplasmic extensions), also used for feeding
acquired through ingestion of drinking water contaminated with feces
about Giardia lamblia
movement is by flagella
has two nuclei
causes inflammation of the intestines
acquired through drinking water contaminated with feces
what protozoa causes several different diseases by different species?
animals that carry microbes from one host to another are called:
mechanical and biological
two ways vectors carry diseases
passive transport of pathogens by the insect's feet or other body part
active transport from arthropod bites whereby the disease is transmitted from person to person
only parasitic ciliate of humans
protozoa that are not motile in their adult forms and are obligate intracellular parasites. "required - live in cell - obtains nourishments from host"
causes a disease of blood and lymphatic vessels which may be mild, even asymptomatic in normal healthy adults
humans acquire the organism by ingestion of cat feces
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae
four species of Plasmodium that cause malaria
what requires two hosts for its life cycle?
what definitive host harbors the sexual reproductive stage of Plasmodium?
what intermediate host harbors the asexual reproductive stage of Plasmodium?
obligate intracellular parasites that require a living host cell to reproduce. extremely small in size, not composed of cells/acellular
structure of a virus
contains DNA or RNA
DNA or RNA is surrounded by a protein coat (capsid), which also may or may not be covered by a coating called an envelope (consists of some combination of proteins, carbs, and lipids). envelopes might be spiked.
viruses that infect invertebrates animals, vertebrates animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria.
specific host cells on only one host species
what do viruses infect?
the virus's requirements for a specific attachment to the host cell, and the host must have the factors the virus needs to multiply
what are the two factors that determines what specific type of host a virus infects?
as magnification _________________, resolution _________________.
what is resolution measured by?
oil captures light and creates a closed system
what is the purpose of oil immersion?
beams of electrons
what do electron microscopes use?
coloring the slide in order to change the refractive index of the specimen
two types of electron microscope
makes bigger/not as big, 3D
kill the bacteria, heat causes the smear to adhere to the glass
two reasons to heat fix the smear
gram negative cells
what has an outer membrane composed of phospholipids, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides?
whats the first step of a Gram stain?
whats the second step of the Gram stain?
whats the third step of the Gram stain?
whats the fourth stain of the Gram stain?
adult stage of Plasmodium formed from sexual reproduction in the Anapholes mosquito (infective stage of humans)
immature (baby) stage of Plasmodium formed from asexual reproduction in humans
mature asexual stage
movement by hair-like extensions
protozoa that causes urethritis in males and vaginitis in females; acquired through contact with vaginal-urethral discharge, usually by sexual transmission but possibly from toilet seats and clothing
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