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Biology- Cell Transport
Terms in this set (32)
1. Forms boundary of cell.
2. controls what enters and leaves the cell. It is selectively permeable.
3. Not just a phospholipid bilayer ( Fluid Mosaic Model). It contains cholesterol and membrane proteins.
4. Enclose organelles in cells.
1. Both embedded and attached to membrane.
2. Functions as transport proteins, receptor proteins, and glycoproteins.
Transport (Channel) Protein
Protein that controls what molecule can pass.
Cell's ID Tag.
All living things regulate their internal environment in a variety of ways. Most activities in organisms (cells) are directed at maintaining this. Because the cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell, it is very important in helping cells stay in a steady state.
Will happen on its own.
3. Facilitated Diffusion.
Requires energy. Molecules are moved against their concentration gradient.
1. Proteins use energy to move molecules against their concentration gradient.
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The movement of molecules down its concentration gradient.
The diffusion of water down its concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane.
A solution that causes a cell to take in water. Lower concentration of solutes than the cell. Causes swelling.
A solution that causes no net water movement into or out of the cell. Same concentration of solutes as the cell. Cell remains same size.
A solution that causes a cell to lose water. Higher concentration of solutes than the cell. Causing shrinking.
Facilitated Diffusion (Passive)
Molecule that are too large or have a positive or negative charge can't pass through the phospholipid bilayer. Channel proteins in membrane allow them to pass through.
Transport proteins in the membrane actively transport small molecules and ions across the membrane. Requires energy to work.
Sodium Potassium Pump:
1. Pumps 3 Na+ ions out of the cell, and 2 K+ ions into the cell.
2. Requires energy in the form of ATP.
Brings large materials into cell; cell membrane pinches in to form a vesicle enclosing particles.
1. Phagocytosis- "cellular eating"; large particles.
2. Pinocytosis- "cellular drinking"; smaller particles or droplets of liquid.
Sends large materials out of cell; vesicle fuses with cell membrane to expel contents outside of cell.
Energy of motion.
Ex: Heat and light.
Stored energy. Due to position or structure.
Ex: Chemical energy
Energy stored in bonds in molecules.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transferred or transformed.
In living things this happens during chemical reactions.
Break bonds and form new bonds.
Stores chemical energy that cells can use for work. It also releases energy when the cell needs it. Energy is released when the bond is broken to the third phosphate group of ATP.
The ATP Cycle
Energy from exergonic reactions allows the cell to make more ATP while the energy released as ATP is broken down allows the cell to power endergonic reactions
Chemical reactions require a certain amount of energy to get the reaction started.
Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.
Inhibitor fits into active site and prevents substrates from binding to enzyme.
A region on an enzyme that binds to a substrate to make a reaction.
Fits into the active site so the enzyme can catalyze the reaction.
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