17 terms

Chapter 3 Digestion

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calorie
a measure of the amount of energy in food
nutrients
substances in food that provide materials and energy for your cells
the six types of nutrients
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
glucose
a carbohydrate that is a major source of energy for cells
digestion
the prooess by which your body breaks down food
absorption
the process by which nutrients pass from the small intestine into the blood
saliva
a fluid released by your salivary glands when you eat
enzyme
a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in your body
epiglottis
a flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the windpipe
esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
peristalsis
muscle contractions that push food toward the stomach
small intestine
the part of the digestive system where the most chemical digestion takes place
liver
makes bile
gallbladder
stores bile
pancreas
produces digestive enzymes
villi
tiny, finger0like structures in the small intestine where absorption occurs
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system where water is reabsorbed into the body