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Where and when did sahelanthropus tchadensis exist?

East african rift valley, 7-6 million years ago

when was ardipithecus kadabba alive?

5.2-5.8 million years ago

when was ardipithecus ramidus alive?

4.4 million years ago

characteristics of ardipithecus ramidus

relatively small brain, prognathic, more forwardly placed foramen magnum, reduced canine size and loss of honing, minimal sexual dimorphism, foot retains a divergent big toe. lacked some features for suspension/vertical climbing and knuckle walking found in apes.

is a prognathic jaw more often found in apes or humans?


what position of the foramen magnum is considered consistent with bipedalism?


Two types of bipedal ancestors with large teeth and small brains from south africa

australopithecus (gracile) and paranthropus (robust)

when was australopithecus anamensis alive?

4.4 million years ago

derived traits of australopithecus anamensis (compared to apes)

reduced canines, larger molars, thick enamel, undisputed evidence of bipedalism

archaic traits of australopithecus anamensis

more u-shaped dental arcade, receding chin

when and where did australopithecus afarensis exist?

3.9-2.9 million years ago in East Africa

Give an example of a famous Australopithecus afarensis

Lucy! (2.3 million years old)

what was the cranial capacity of Australopithecus afarensis?

only 420 cubic centimeters, compared to gorilla (506), chimpanzee (395) and human (1325)

What evidence of bipedalism can we see from the footprints found at laetoli, tanzania (3.6 ma), left by Australopithecus afarensis?

adducted big toe, development of arches, deep depression of the heel; evidence of bipedalism

What are some retained arboreal features of Australopithecus afarensis?

relatively long and curved hand bones, higher mobile shoulder joints and upwardly-oriented shoulder blade, short lower (lumbar) vertebrae, relatively long upper limbs compared to short lower limbs

did Australopithecus show evidence of stone tool making?


When and where did Australopithecus africanus exist?

south africa, 3.5-2 million years ago

What species was the Taung child?

Australopithecus africanus

When and where did Kenyanthropus platyops exist?

east africa, 3.5 million years ago

In terms of limb proportions, is A. africanus or A. afarensis more similar to Homo sapiens?

A. Africanus

Name some evolutionary trends from Australopithecus to Homo

increase in brain size and capacity for tool making, decrease in prognathism, postcanine tooth size, increase in body size

Name some evolutionary trends from Australopithecus to Paranthropus

hypermasticatory complex, increase in cheek tooth size, decrease in prognathism

What are some characteristics of the teeth of Paranthropus?

enlarged cheek teeth with thick molar enamel; frontal dental reduction and crowding

What are the muscles of mastication?

temporalis muscle and masseter muscle

What anatomical traits can be found in Robust Australopithecus that are related to diet?

presence of saggital crest, enlarged cheek teeth with thick enamel

When and where did Paranthropus aethiopicus exist?

East Africa, 2.7-2.5 million years ago

When and where did Paranthropus boisei exist?

East Africa, 2.3-1.2 million years ago

When and where did Paranthropus robustus exist?

South Africa, 2.0-1.5 million years ago

When and where did Australopithecus garhi exist?

East Africa, 2.5 million years ago

What are some major trends seen in the australopiths in terms of dentition?

reduced canine size; larger cheek teeth; thicker enamel, paranthropus chewing adaptation, postcanine megadontia

What are some major trends seen in the australopiths in terms of locomotion/posture?

adaptations for bipedalism

What are some major trends seen in the australopiths in terms of relative brain size?

not substantially enlarged compared to apes

What are some major trends seen in the australopiths in terms of body size?

smaller than modern humans, with more sexual dimorphism

Where and when were the first remains of Homo habilis found?

Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania by the Leakeys in 1964

What is significant about Homo habilis?

found with flaked stone tools and a slightly larger brain

Where and when did Homo habilis exist?

East and South Africa, 2.4-1.4 million years ago

Where and when did Homo rudolfensis exist?

East and South Africa, 2.4-1.6 million years ago

Where have early Homo fossils been located?

a number of sites in East and South Africa, including Malawi

What are some distinguishing features of early Homo?

larger cranial capacity and rounded cranial vault; small or no supraorbital torus, slight reduction in size of the cheek teeth, thinner enamel; more parabolic dental arcade, reduced prognathism, more gracile cranium; less developed cresting; reduced jaw muslces, but similar in body size to australopiths, associated with stone tools

What is the time frame of the Oldowan tool industry?

early stone age/lower paleolithic 2.6 million years ago-200 Ka

What are indicators/evidence that something was used as a tool?

stone tool cut marks (with parallel striations), found with animal remains

What was found in a site in Dikika, Ethiopia?

3.39 million years old bones that were cutmarked (evidence of potential flesh removal, marrow access), not found in association with hominins or tools-recovered a young Australopithecus afarensis. Provides evidence for stone tool assisted meat consumption before Homo.

What types of tool use was unique to the first tool makers/hominins (as opposed to the use of tools associated with chimps)?

Stone transport more than 10km, stone tool manufacture, using tools to make tools (woodworking), plant processing, large game acquisition, carcass processing

When looking at the first Homos, associated with the oldowan industry, what is there NOT yet evidence for?

manufactured hunting weapons, competent big game hunting, fire and cooking, camps, composite tools and hafting, pigments, ornaments etc.

Where and when did Homo erectus exist?

aka H. ergaster. found in africa, europe, georgia, asia, java. 1.8 million years ago - ca. 30 ka.

How far back can Homo erectus be found in africa?

1.8 mya

How far back can Homo erectus be found in Europe?

1 mya

How far back can Homo erectus be found in Georgia?

1.7 mya

How far back can Homo erectus be found in Asia?

1.6-1.2 mya

How far back can Homo erectus be found in Java?

1.6-1.8 mya

What was the first East African find?

robust Paranthropus boisei found in 1959 by the Leakeys at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

What is the time frame of the Pleistocene?

1.8 mya - 10 ka. associated with climate oscillation

What are some traits of Homo erectus?

long, low brain case, larger nose, bigger brain, occipital torus, more gracile mandible, smaller premolars and molars, pentagonal shape to the skull, bar-like supraorbital torus, no chin

What was the "Turkana Boy"?

Homo erectus, found in Africa. thought to be an adolescent skeleton (8 years old based on dental development), estimated stature of 5'3," significant increase in overall body size compared to Australopithecus, similar body proportions to modern humans, heavily muscled, reduction of sexual dimorphism

Homo erectus is thought by some to actually be 2 species based on geographical variation, what is the division?

Homo ergaster (Africa), Homo erectus (indonesia)

When did the Acheulean Tool Industry exist?

1.6 mya - 200,000 years ago

What characterizes the Acheulean tool industry?

symmetrical/bifacial tools, retouching, soft hammer percussion

What would you find in the Acheulean "tool kit?"

3 classes of core tools: handaxes, cleavers, picks; many formal flake tools: Denticulates, scrapers, burins, borers

How are Acheulean tools different from Oldowan tools?

handaxe proportions follow a mental template, tools have very regular proportions, standardized form (holds for Africa, Near East, Europe), requires more complex cognitive abilities

What typifies handaxe usage in the Acheulean?

"swiss army knife," for processing large animal carcasses (tip cuts through joints and meat), cores as flake dispensers

What is an important Acheulean site?

olorgesaille, kenya. Flakes that showed a Vitamin A deficiency (evidence of a meaty/animal based diet)

Why is fire important?

cooking, warmth, cave occupation, predator protection, hunting, transformation of materials, social functions

How do we know fires were manmade (vs natural brush fire)?

more intense and longer lasting (stronger magnetic signal, higher temperature), spatially localized and discontinuous

What was found at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel?

site from 790,000 years ago, israel, charcoal, burned flints, hearths, burned grass seeds, grains, discrete clusters, not distributed wholly throughout the site, provided evidence for the presence of hearths

What characterizes the remains found at Dmanisi, Georgia?

1.7 mya; still oldowan, small bodies and brains, Homo ergaster

What characterizes the remains found in Java, Indonesia

1.8 mya; Homo erectus, no stone tools

What characterizes the remains found at Yuan Mou, China

1.7 mya (reversed polarity), 2 incisors show shovel shaped incisor, Homo erectus

What are some trends in Homo ergaster/erectus in terms of teeth?

reduction in size of cheek teeth (similar to modern humans)

What are some trends in Homo ergaster/erectus in terms of body size?

increased body size and modern human-like limb proportions; postcranial adaptations to long-range bipedalism

What are some trends in Homo ergaster/erectus in terms of brain size?

absolute brain size increased

What are some trends in Homo ergaster/erectus in terms of tools?

associated with Oldowan and Acheulean stone tools. More evidence of hunting, fire

What are some trends in Homo ergaster/erectus in terms of geographic distribution?

wide geographic distribution outside of Africa, persisted for a long time

Why 'out of Africa' at 1.8 mya?

tools and increased cognitive capabilities allowed early hominins to colonize new environments, obligate long-range bipedalism, running after large game, fire, expansion was earlier but only visible at 1.8 mya

How did flores get to indonesia?

by boat

Where and when did Homo floresiensis exist?

indonesia 67-18 kya

What are some characteristics of Homo floresiensis?

hobbit! Australopith-like brain size, but more vertical profile to the face, about 3.5 ft tall, Australopith-like wrists; short lower limbs, flat feet (with no longitudinal arch) and with long curved toes

What kind of tool use was associated with Homo florensiensis?

simple flake stone tools; evidence of butchery, hunting

Where does H. floresiensis "fit in?"

island dwarfism? but brain should be larger if derived from Homo sapiens...descendant of remnat H. habilis or australopith population

What type of hominin existed in the Middle Pleistocene? ca. 800-150,000 years ago?

Archaics (somewhere between modern H. sapiens and H. erectus)

What are some derived features of archaics that make them similar to H. sapiens?

larger cranial capacity (1200-1300 cc), higher forehead, rounder braincase, with more vertical sides (variably present), arched, double brow ridges, molar size is decreased

What are some primitive retentions of archaics that make them similar to H. erectus?

long, low skull; thick cranial bones, very large brow ridges, no canine fossa, no chin, post-cranial skeleton more robust than modern humans

what was found at Atapuerca, Spain and other nearby sites?

site with archaics, 1.2 mya - 350 ka, hominins, cave bears, single handaxe, homo ancestor, artifacts, cut-marked bones, cannibalism?, artifacts, hominin remains, elephant bones

In what time frame was the Levallois technique prevalent?

middle stone age/middle paleolithic ~300-50ka

What was found at la Cotte de St. Brelade, France?

evidence for big game hunting (250 ka)

What was found at a site in Ethiopia dating back to 600 Ka?

Bodo cranium, possible evidence of cannibalism? Toothmarks on cranium

Where and when did H. neanderthalensis exist?

ca. 150 - 27,000 years ago; upper pleistocene. around europe

Which "industries" are associated with the early stone age/lower paleolithic?

oldowan and acheulean

Which "industry" is associated with the middle stone age/middle paleolithic?

mousterian industry, prepared core technology

What type of technology is associated with the late stone age/upper paleolithic?

blade-based technology

What has been found at sites in europe dating back to 250-40 kya relating to neandertal hunting?

rare hafted weapons, evidence of competent hunting. Animal remains at neandertal sites are often characterized by an abundance of 1 or 2 prey species, healthy adults are abundant in the animal remains at neandertal sites, cut-marked bones, first access

What is an important site with evidence of neandertal burials?


What has been found at neandertal sites in europe dating back to 250-40 kya?

rare hafted weapons, competent hunting, interpersonal violence, cannibalism, long-term survival of sick or injured individuals, burial without grave goods, little evidence of long-distance networks, use of pigments.

what are the two models for the origins of anatomically modern Homo sapiens?

mutiregional and replacement

Consider the multiregional model for the origin of AMHS. Does the pleistocene hominin lineage evolve into anatomically modern H. sapiens or is it replaced?

pleistocene hominins represent a single evolving lineage across different regions, there is significant gene flow between regions (europe, africa, asia)

Consider the replacement (out of africa) model for the origin of AMHS. Does the pleistocene hominin lineage evolve into anatomically modern H. sapiens or is it replaced?

AMHS evolves in africa and then spreads to Europe and Asia. There is no gene flow/interbreeding, but replacement of existing hominins.

How do you account for the difference in body size between neandertals and AMHS?

H. sapiens were much less robustly built b/c of evolutionary history in the warmer latitudes of Africa. Relying less on muscle strength and more on tool use to get things done.

What traits characterize the beginnings of modern human facial anatomy?

vertical forehead, vertical face, moderately convex scull, no protruding face, tucked in below the cranium. These start to show up in the fossil record around 270,000 ka (late middle Pleistocene in Africa

Where does the fossil record show distinctly modern human traits?

Omo Ethiopia, 200,000 years ago: rounded brain case, frontal bone, distinct chin, mastoid process. at Herto, Ethiopia (165,000 ka) vertical orientation of face

What evidence from the fossil record suggests that there were two expansions out of africa as opposed to one?

long hiatus in the fossil record

What are some especially important innovations of the African Middle Stone Age that we see in the fossil record by 60,000 years ago?

projectile technology, fishing, personal adornment, larger social networks, exchange networks (as evidenced by beads), belief systems (burial with grave goods)

Why are projectiles important?

more success in hunting, less duress, survivorship increases, competitive advantage

Around when and where did evidence in the fossil record indicate in increase in symbolic behavior and social intensification?

90,000 years ago, south africa, namibia, tanzania, ethiopia, senegal

Around when is Neandertals last appearance in the fossil record?

ca. 27,000 years ago

Around when do anatomically modern Homo sapiens first appear in the fossil record?

ca. 40,000 years ago

Is there overlap between when AMHS appear and when Neandertals disappear?


When do we see venus figurines in the fossil record?

ca. 25,000 years ago (Lespugue, France, Willendorf, Austria, Dolni Vestonice, Yugoslavia)

What is distinct about the H. sapien ritual burial in contrast to Neanderthal burials?

Arene Candide, Italy; 20,000 year old burial shows mammoth ivory pendants and a flint blade buried alongside the body of a teenage boy. Upper Paleolithic graves commonly included artifacts, body adornments and sprinklings of red ochre.

What is associated with an expanded subsistence base as found in H. sapiens?

more varied diet, which also included use of aquatic resources

What is associated with settlement patterns of H. sapiens?

Sites occupied for longer periods and extensively modified. Evidence of more permanent shelters (e.g. mammoth bone shelters)

What innovative advantages did modern humans have?

new more elaborate technologies, projectile weapons, clothing, shelters, and other innovations in material culture.

What cognitive advantages did modern humans have?

personal adornments and symbolic behavior, art and music, ritual.

What social advantages did modern humans have?

larger social networks, exchange networks, buffered risk of starvation.

Why is useful to use mitochondrial DNA in tracking changes in the human lineage?

Maternal inheritance, no recombination of genetic material from the mother and any difference that occurs over time is solely due to mutation, not genetic recombination), rapid mutations, short code, can calculate a "molecular clock" and estimate a date for the most recent common ancestor between the two lineages

In which populations does mitochondrial DNA show that is there consistently more diversity: sub saharan african populations or populations outside of africa?

sub saharan africa populations always show more diversity because they evolved for longer

What does evidence from neandertal mitochondrial DNA tell us?

neandertal lineage is distinct from modern humans

What is the coalescence time of human and Neanderthal reference sequences that we know from the genomic data?

ca. 706,000 years ago

When does genomic data indicate that there was a split between ancestral human and Neanderthal populations?

ca. 370,000 years ago

When does fossil data show the earliest known anatomically modern humans?

ca. 195,000 years ago

When does the fossil record show the earliest modern humans in europe?

ca. 41,000 years ago

When does the fossil record show the most recent known Neanderthal remains?

ca. 28,000 years ago

Did neandertals (or other 'Archaics') and modern humans interbreed?

At least a little. Evidence that adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin (D variant) introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage (evidence from remains found at Lagar Velho, Portugal 24,500 ya)

Which continent is the most variable/reflects greater antiquity of the gene pool?


When is the last common ancestor of all africans?

ca. 150,000 years ago

When is the last common ancestor of African and non-African AMHS?

ca. 60,000 years ago

What is introgression?

the transfer of alleles across species boundaries

What are some major evolutionary novelties of humans?

habitual upright walking (bipedalism), characteristics of dentition, elaboration of material culture, significant increase in brain size, long developmental period and long lifespan, mosaic evolution (different traits evolve at different points in time)

What is encephalization?

the proportional size of the brain relative to body size

When did humans evolve their relatively large brains?

happens around when the genus Homo bursts (around 1.7 mya/between 1.5 and 2 mya)

What is the function of the brainstem?

regulates many basic body functions

What is the function of the cerebellum?

integrates sensory perception, coordination and motor control; learning new motor skills

what is the function of the cerebrum (neocortex)?

higher cognitive functions, such as sensory perception, generation of motor/action commands, spatial reasoning, memory, conscious thought, speech, language

What is the function of the frontal lobe?

many higher cognitive functions, associated with intelligence

What is the function of the parietal lobe?

integrates sensory information from different modalities, important for tool using

What is the function of the temporal lobe?

primary auditory cortex, visual object recognition, processing of semantics, long-term memory

What is the function of the occipital lobe?

primary visual cortex

What unique evidence do we see of brain reorganization in humans?

the primary visual cortex and the lunate sulcus

What is distinctive about human language?

it is spoken, semantic, phonemic, grammatical

Name the language processing areas in the human brain.

broca's area, wernicke's area, angular gyrus, sylvian fissure, arcuate fasciculus

Where is the language processing area in the human brain? (left or right)

in 95% of modern humans, language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere of the brain

What do cell architecture studies indicate about the left-side broca's area in the human brain?

it is significantly expanded

How can we reconstruct the position of the larynx in fossils?

by looking at the angle of the mandible

What is FOXP2?

a gene involved in speech and language. unique to humans (2 amino acid changes in the human form)

Compared to muscle tissue, how much energy does the brain consume?

16 times more energy per unit mass than muscle tissue

What is the percentage of BMR (basal metabolic rate) devoted to the brain in humans compared to other primates and mammals?

20% in humans, 8-10% in other primates, 3-5% in most other mammals

What is the social intelligence hypothesis?

brain expansion allowed primates to cope with more and exploit increasingly more complex social relationships

Increased size in which part of the brain is associated with group size and rates of tactical deception?

relative neocortex size

What is the ecological intelligence hypothesis?

brain expansion in primates evolved in response to selection for enhanced problem solving abilities in the ecological domain - navigating the environment, finding food, and processing food.

What do mental maps facilitate?

allows for primates to follow optimized routes to preferred fruit trees in their environment

What is extractive foraging?

natural selection has favored enhanced cognitive capacities in primates that rely on extracted foods, which require complex processing techniques to access

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