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Theatre History Quiz 1
Terms in this set (50)
What are characteristics of a Melodrama?
Spectacular stage effects, good triumphs evil, damsel in distress, action, romance, happy endings. (Hollywood Blockbuster)
What are the characteristics of The Well Made Play?
Intrigue, change in plots, fast paced, needs to be resolved, all lose ends wrapped up (Soap Opera)
Interest in the individual, interest in a culture's history, moving away from politics
The Star System
During the Romantic age there was no ensemble. It was about seeing a favourite performer. Stars viewed themselves as individual performers.
What triggered Realism and Naturalism?
Defined by technological advancement, telephone, urbanization, advancements in science, poverty, debates about socialism.
What came first? Realism or Naturalism?
Naturalism then Realism. Realism was more extreme.
Who are the four important innovators of Naturalism?
Georg II Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Emile Zola, Andre Antoine, Henrik Ibsen.
Aims to recreate reality in the most uncompromising way. Does not shy away from real problems (talks a lot about poverty, alcoholism, STIs)
How did photography effect Naturalism?
altered people's perception of the world, they expected a more truthful representation on the stage.
Where did Naturalism begin?
Started in Germany and France, spread east towards Russia, then west towards Great Britain and North America.
Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1826-1914)
Took over the Court Theatre in 1866 One of the first Directors. Was wealthy and could afford longer rehearsals then the Romantic period. Toned down individual performance and focus on the ensemble. Would tone down gestures and get actors to perform in a realistic manner. Choreographed large crowd scenes. Made effort for historical accuracy in costume and set design. Use of furniture.
Emile Zolo (1840-1902)
A French writer. a manifesto, Therese Raquin (1873). Wanted to identify a social problem, put it on stage and view it in an objective way, reveal the problem and solve it. Bring out social problems in order to cure them. Used everyday speech and flexible dialogue in accordance to the characters and their background. Studied people's behaviour (environment/hereditary predispositions). Not interested in stock characters.
Andre Antoine (1858-1943)
French actor, theatre manager, film director. Theatre Libre (1887). First Avant Garde theatre of this era because he produced plays of controversial subject matter. Actively sponsors new and upcoming playwrights. Advocated a realistic style of acting. Often employed amateur actors (cheaper and didn't have previous training). One of the first to darken the theatre, creates a fourth wall. Would place live chickens/real carcasses on stage. Aligned themselves with avant-garde painters, tried to legitimize themselves as an art form. Went bankrupt.
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
Norwegian Playwright. A Doll's House (1828) Ghosts (1881)
When was the height of Naturalism?
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Industrial Revolution -> The gap between the rich and the poor is getting wider. Rise of the labor movement. Beginning of Communism -> Anti-Capitalism -> Returning the money to the workers. Material reality -> economics that determines our thought, education, and arts. Naturalism has an interest in the working class.
Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species (1859)
Theory of evolution and survival of the fittest. Human actions are determined by the social environment and hereditary predisposition -> no real concept of free will.
Attacks social and religious double standards. Subjects the institution of marriage to critical analysis. Creates female characters that represent the emancipated woman. Describes the challenges of motherhood. Shows strong, educated, outspoken women.
Woman Suffrage Movement
Lasts 1850-1950. Women demand the right to vote, education, owning properties, right to divorce.
Wants to achieve equal representation in parliament, abolish any impediment regarding gender in law, but rarely deals with other categories of people (age, race, sexuality).
"The New Woman"
Self-fulfillment, independence, legal and sexual equality, single, sexuality, well-educated, has a job, comfortable clothes.
Mabou Mines' DollHouse (2004)
Directed by Lee Breuer (born 1937) is an American playwright, theater director. In the play the men are played by dwarves, audience is dolls, set in a real doll house.
August Strindberg (1848-1912)
Playwright -> Miss Julie (1906). Short Story -> A Doll's House. Extremely Misogynistic. "Love between the sexes is a battle."
Mies Julie (2012)
The Three Sisters (1901)
Written by Anton Chekhov. Comment or "warning" about the state of Russia and what could happen. Being stuck in time, not accepting modernity, Used sound to create mood and atmosphere.
Moscow Art Theatre
Founded by: Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko.
Stanislavsky system of acting
Creating the character from within -> Getting to know the characters emotion and psychological state and working from it -> Meticulous training of body and voice Skilled observation of reality, The magic "if", Emotional memory, Illusion of the first time, The character's primary 'objective, Sub-text.
What was the peak of Realism?
Psychological Realism -> 1900s
Nikolai Evreinov (1879-1953)
Tries to break down boundaries (Genders, stage/audience, aesthetic).The Storming of the Winter Palace (1920) Tribute performance/recreation (8000 people, 500 orchestra, 100,000 spectators)
Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874-1940)
a Russian and Soviet theatre director, actor and theatrical producer. Dom Jaun (1910). Familiar with Stanislavsky system of acting, but wanted to create a different type of theatre. All about visual aspects of the theatre experience -> Very Avant Garde and different from realism.No real separation between the set/stage/audience -> One of the first times we see an apron stage, it reaches out to the audience rather than drawing a line. He also left the lights on in the auditorium.Used Circus, Masquerade, Carnival atmosphere, contemporary dance, gymnastics -> Physical forms of expression.
Acting Style. Practical physical exercises, physical body is a machine, person working it is the machine operator. To train his actors he would get them to practice a series of studies.
Stage Design. Bring art into public spaces, Industrial production and construction. Celebrate the revolution and celebrate the workers, art, the body and the machine.
Stage designer and painter who worked with Meyerhold. The Maganimous Cuckhold (1922) -> Set in a flower mill, not about narrative or character. Creating a unity between the set and the bodies, not worried about creating a realistic set.
Concerned with the inner realities of characters, extremely subjective. It suggests emotions and explores dreams/myths. Seeks truth about human existence.
New to Symbolism
Playwriting -> New uses of language. Uses language as a way to evoke emotions and uses metaphors. Acting -> Often replaces them with puppets, not interested with the individual. ->Evoking an atmosphere, no longer realistic and now very stylized.
Synesthesia of the Senses
The correspondence of two or more senses.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Dream theory, Fragmented subjectivity, Ego, Id, Superego
August Strindberg -> A Dream Play (1901). Ingmar Bergman -> Wild Strawberries (1957)
Henrik Ibsen - Lady from the Sea (1892), Woman trapped in her marriage, he feeds her medication to keep her quiet, she has a longing to be one with the sea. The Stranger or Foreigner wants to bring her back to the sea.
Maurice Maeterlinck - The Blind (1890), Set on an island where a group of blind people have been lead by the priest and are waiting for the priest to return so he can lead them back home. Only he is lying dead a few feet away from them.
Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
A Belgian playwright, poet. Created a new style of dialogue, extremely lean and spare, where what is suggested is more important than what is said. Didn't believe actors could portray the symbolic figures of his plays (too individual) and wanted to use marionettes.
Theatre de L'Oeuvre (1893-1900)
Alfred Jarry -> Ubu Roi premiered in 1896. A home for the artists of the Symbolist Movement at the end of the nineteenth century. Produced Maeterlinck, Oscar Wilde, and Strindberg.
Aurelien Lugne-Poe (1869-1940)
Was a French actor, theater director , and scenic designer best known for His Work at the Théâtre de l'Oeuvre.
Paul Fort (1872-1960)
A French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. At the age of 18, reacting against the Naturalistic theatre, Fort founded the Théâtre d'Art (1890-93).
Adolphe Appia (1862-1928)
Designer -> tried to construct three-dimension scenery that was both rhythmic and highly symbolical in order to catch the essence of the play. Light was the dominating principal in a production to achieve unity. Got rid of footlights and started using lights from above -> Spotlights, diffused light
Inspired by rhythm and music.
"An object is three dimensional to our eyes only because of the light the strikes it."
Edward Gordon Craig (1872-1966)
Often tried to claim others were copying his work. Also wanted to get rid of footlights and light the stage from above. Took a primarily visual approach to theatre, separate from text and actors. Thought actors should be abolished and replaced by super sized marionettes. -> Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet.
is a precursor to performance art. An Avant Garde performance that was against World War 1.
is a political genre, against the horrors of war. Started by glorifying war (The war to end all wars, relief finally building a new future).
Create a theatre for the proletarians -> Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik (1927) Satire of war (comic strips).
Sound Poem. Hugo Ball. Part of Dada. Not nonsense, against sense.
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
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