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abnormal cell proliferation (cell growth and division)

benign tumor

single multicellular mass

malignant tumor

cells detach, enter bloodstream, invade other tissues

secondary tumors

formed from malignant tumors


the process of forming secondary tumors

single ancestral cell

all the cells within primary and secondary tumors are generated by multiple divisions of this


tumor cells are this

polymerase errors during DNA replication

main cause of mutations in somatic cells

single cell

cancer results from multiple mutations events within


the process of becoming a cancer cell

DNA Repair
Cell death
cell adhesion
cell cycle

Tumorogenesis requires successive mutations in genes that control:

mutator phenotype

the inability to repair normal DNA damage is a fundamental characteristic of cancer cells

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

hereditary sensitivity to UV light results from defects in nucleotide excision repair

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal cancer

colon cancer results from defects in base mismatch repair

programmed cell death

cells that have severe DNA damage undergoes this

apoptotic bodies

apoptotic cells fragment their DNA and split into small _____ that are taken up by phagocytic cells

Bax and Bcl2

the decision to undergo apoptosis is controlled by the relative levels of two proteins


Cancer cells often over-express ____ which prevents apoptosis of damaged cells

Bcl2 homodimer

blocks apoptosis

Bcl2-Bax heterodimer

inactive complex

Bax homodimer

promotes apoptosis

implantation of embryo in uterus
immune cells targeting infection

invasion of tissues that is normal for human cells

decreased levels of E-cadherin
increased levels of proteolytic enzymes

Metastatic cancer cells may show


cell adhesion protein

proteolytic enzymes

digest proteins in the extracellular matrix to permit invasion of tissues

G1/S checkpoint

cell monitors size and DNA integrity

G2/M checkpoint

cell monitors DNA synthesis and damage

M checkpoint

cell monitors spindle formation and attachment to kinetochores


normally play a role in promoting cell division


drive uncontrolled growth and tumor formation


oncogene mutations are normally ___


proto-oncogenes often become oncogenes when they are

tumors suppressor genes

normally halt the cell cycle in response to extracellular signals or DNA damage


mutations causing tumor suppressor genes to ___ function result in cells that divide when they should be quiescent


tumor suppressor mutations are normally ___

both RB1 alleles

normal individuals will require a mutation in ____ to develop retinoblastoma, a cancer of the retina

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