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36 terms

Cancer Genetics

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cancer
abnormal cell proliferation (cell growth and division)
benign tumor
single multicellular mass
malignant tumor
cells detach, enter bloodstream, invade other tissues
secondary tumors
formed from malignant tumors
metastases
the process of forming secondary tumors
single ancestral cell
all the cells within primary and secondary tumors are generated by multiple divisions of this
clonal
tumor cells are this
polymerase errors during DNA replication
main cause of mutations in somatic cells
single cell
cancer results from multiple mutations events within
Tumorogenesis
the process of becoming a cancer cell
DNA Repair
Cell death
cell adhesion
cell cycle
Tumorogenesis requires successive mutations in genes that control:
mutator phenotype
the inability to repair normal DNA damage is a fundamental characteristic of cancer cells
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
hereditary sensitivity to UV light results from defects in nucleotide excision repair
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal cancer
colon cancer results from defects in base mismatch repair
programmed cell death
cells that have severe DNA damage undergoes this
apoptotic bodies
apoptotic cells fragment their DNA and split into small _____ that are taken up by phagocytic cells
Bax and Bcl2
the decision to undergo apoptosis is controlled by the relative levels of two proteins
Bcl2
Cancer cells often over-express ____ which prevents apoptosis of damaged cells
Bcl2 homodimer
blocks apoptosis
Bcl2-Bax heterodimer
inactive complex
Bax homodimer
promotes apoptosis
implantation of embryo in uterus
immune cells targeting infection
invasion of tissues that is normal for human cells
decreased levels of E-cadherin
increased levels of proteolytic enzymes
Metastatic cancer cells may show
E-cadherin
cell adhesion protein
proteolytic enzymes
digest proteins in the extracellular matrix to permit invasion of tissues
G1/S checkpoint
cell monitors size and DNA integrity
G2/M checkpoint
cell monitors DNA synthesis and damage
M checkpoint
cell monitors spindle formation and attachment to kinetochores
proto-oncogenes
normally play a role in promoting cell division
oncogene
drive uncontrolled growth and tumor formation
dominant
oncogene mutations are normally ___
overactive
proto-oncogenes often become oncogenes when they are
tumors suppressor genes
normally halt the cell cycle in response to extracellular signals or DNA damage
lose
mutations causing tumor suppressor genes to ___ function result in cells that divide when they should be quiescent
recessive
tumor suppressor mutations are normally ___
both RB1 alleles
normal individuals will require a mutation in ____ to develop retinoblastoma, a cancer of the retina