101 terms

BA350 Exam 1

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(T/F) Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people
True
Which generation of workers tend to be impatient, want challenging work, and put family before work?

a) silent generation
b) swing generation
c) baby boomers
d) baby busters
d) baby busters
When you attribute your grade in this class to the difficulty of the exams, you are making what type of attribution?

a) Internal
b) External
c) Ability
d) Luck
e) none of the above
b) external
Which one of the following is NOT one of the five specific dimensions used to measure job satisfaction?

a) pay
b) work itself
c) supervision
d) company policies
e) coworkers
d) company policies
Match the appropriate answer (a, b, c) for each of the terms listed:

1) Direct experience
2) Affect
3) Cognitive dissonance

a) The emotional component of an attitude
b) A conflict between attitudes and behavior
c) A major influence on attitude formation
1) Direct experience (C)
2) Affect (A)
3) Cognitive dissonance (B)
What is OB?
The field of study that investigates the impact that individual, group, and contextual factors have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of improving organizational effectiveness
Open systems framework
- organizations are living entities; they have personalities
- they affect and are affected by the external environment
- all systems within and outside the organization are interrelated and must be congruent for survival
- people and relationships are primary determinants of success
Informal vs. formal organization
Formal: part that is on the surface; official, legitimate

Informal: part that is beneath surface; not always recognized (e.g. attitudes, perception, motivation, group norms, etc)
- informal can influence formal
Hawthorne studies
-Employees work improved when people showed that they care about their well being
-Employees have needs beyond $$$
-Informal groups have influence on behavior ("rate buster")<--- doesn't conform to the norm
Definition of management
Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling organizational behaviors to accomplish a mission through the division of labor
Levels of managers
HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
-Top level: CEO, CFO, COO, etc
-Middle level: Director, branch manager, etc
-First level: supervisor, team leader, dept. manager, etc
3 types of Managerial skills
-conceptual skills
-human skills
-technical skills
conceptual skills
The ability to perceive an organization or organizational unit as a whole, to understand how its labor is divided into tasks and reintegrated by the pursuit of common goals

Manager's ability to think and most closely associated with planning and organizing

NEEDED at top-level
Human Skills
The ability to work effectively as a group member and build cooperation among group members of an organization or unit

NEEDED at all three levels
Technical Skills
involves understanding the specific knowledge, procedures, and tools required to make the goods or services produced by organization or unit

NEEDED at first-level
Time spent by managers
- Scheduled meetings 59%
- Desk work 22%
- Unscheduled meetings 10%
- Telephone calls 6%
- Tours 3%

Note: 78% human interaction
Technological advances and advantages
Advantages:
-new work patterns (e.g., telecommuting)
-eliminates time/space barriers
-increased speed of execution
-ease of access
-new opportunities (e.g., degree)
-prolonged life span

Disadvantages:
-loss of market share
-loss of human element
-overreliance on technology
-privacy issues
-problem for older workers
-replacement of human labor
-lack of structure for dealing with technology
Globalization
World is free from national boundaries
ex: NAFTA and UN, Euro currency, global financial crises
Managing workforce diversity (gender, race, age, disability, sexual orientation, etc)
-benefits to valuing diversity
Org. is more competitive (marketing)
-more perspective -> better decision making
-increased ability to adapt
-ability to attract and retain good workers
Video: A Class Divided (main takeaways discussed in class)
-Self-fulfilling prophecy - expectation you have for another person and that person will prove you right
-prejudice can be passed down
-discrimination is acting on your prejudice
-reverse discrimination: discrimination against the majority (caucasian)
-color blind: we treat everyone equal, we see you all the same
Interactional psychology
-B=f (P,E); Behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and situation
-person is active in process - both changed by situations and changes situations
-people vary in characteristics (motivation, ability)
-two interpretations of situations; objective situation and person's subjective view
What are the Determinants of personality
-nature vs. nurture
-culture
-family
-group membership (religion, gender)
-life experiences (9/11 tradegy - survivors feeling scared/anxious)
Four Major Personality theories
Trait theory
Psychodymanic theory
Humanistic Theory
Integrative Approach
Trait theory
A problem bc they are enduring and they don't change

Your personality consists of a number of traits
Psychodymanic theory
-Freud says there are 3 parts to your personality
-Id: your drive
-Super ego: your conscience
-Ego: negotiated between it and super ego
Humanistic theory
Grow and develop

Individual growth and development; based on a self concept, based on how much growth you've achieved
Integrative approach
(more modern approach)
- personality is a combination of things
- not just traits but attitude
Personality Characteristics that Affect Behavior in Organizations
-Self-esteem
-Self-efficacy
-Positive/negative affect
-Locus of control
-Self monitoring
-Big 5 Personality Traits
Self-esteem
feelings of self worth
Self-efficacy
about you feeling like you can do a specific task
Positive/negative affect
Your persistent mood disposition (do we vibe positively or negatively)
Locus of control
A person's belief of whether they think they have control over what happens to them
Self Monitoring
how much you pay attention to environment ques of people around you (you behave how you're supposed to behave according to the people around you), more unpredictably, tend to be promoted more, tend to be very influenced by groups
Big 5 Personality Traits
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
Openness to experience
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This framework, based on the classical work of Carl Jung, differentiates people in terms of four general dimension: sensing intuiting, judging and perceiving

8 dimensions: E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P => 16
Self report
Developed using "well" people
Preferences; describes vs prescribes
One type is not better than another
Uses: understanding self/others, building teams, career planning, conflict resolution, etc
E/I
Energy Orientation

Extraversion:
-outgoing
-publicly expressive
-interacting
-speaks, then thinks
-gregarious

Introversion
-quiet
-reserved
-concentrating
-thinks, then (speaks?)
S/N
Attention Orientation

Sensing:
-practical
-specific
-feet on the ground
-detail
-concrete

Intuiting:
-general
-abstract
-head in the clouds
-possibilities
-theoretical
T/F
Decision Making Orientation

Thinking:
-analytical
-clarity
-head
-justice
-rules

Feeling:
-subjective
-harmony
-heart
-mercy
-circumstance

Prosecutor wants thinking people, defense wants feeling people
J/P
Life Style Orientation

Judging
-structured
-time oriented
-decisive
-makes lists/uses them
-organized

Perceiving
-flexible
-open ended
-exploring
-makes lists/loses them
-spontaneous
Team Research on MBTI
-The more similar the types, sooner team will come to understand each other
-highly similar groups reach quicker decisions, but more likely to make errors
-Teams who come to appreciate different types, experience less conflict
-"one sided" teams need to use different types outside team as resources

You want to form teams that complement eachother and have similar goals
One is not really better than the other, they are useful for different things
Social Perception
Process of interpreting information about another person
Influences on social perception (interactions)
-characteristics of the perceiver
-characteristics of the target person
-characteristics of the situation
-active barriers
Impression Management
Process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them
Two types of impression management
Self-enhancing: name dropping, managing appearance
Other-enhancing: flattery, agreement with others' opinion
What is the Attribution Theory
theory seeks to explain why people behave the way they do
Two types of attributions
Internal attributions: I work really hard, I have the ability

External attribution: easy, someone helped me
Kelley's Attribution Theory
We observe/seek out information in the form of three informational cues:
-Consensus: extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way
-Distinctiveness: degree to which person behaves the same way in other situations
-Consistency: Frequency of a particular behavior over time
What are the two Attributional Biases
Fundamental attribution error
-tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on others' behavior

Self-serving bias
-tendency to take credit (internal attribution) when we succeed. Tendency to blame others (external attribution) when we fail
ABC Model
Affect = "feel"
Behavioral = "do" or "would do"
Cognition = "think"
2 types of Attitude Formation
Direct experience: more powerful, better remembered, harder to change

Social learning: through family, peer groups, religious organizations, culture, etc
What are Attitudes
general affective, cognitive and behavioral intention responses toward objects, other people, themselves or social issues
Attitude-Behavior correspondence
-Attitude specificity
-Attitude relevance: ex - cancer, it might be more relevant to u if u have cancer
-timing of measurement: when do u ask people about their attitudes
-Personality factors: your personality determines consistancy between behaviors and attitudes
-social constraints: there are certain constraints in the environment that may keep you from acting out your true behavior. Ex: drinking at a party vs drinking with your parents
Cognitive Dissonance
tension produced when there is a conflict between attitudes and behaviors
-ex: at work if u think TQM is stupid but you use it anyways. Or when you say you don't date athletes but then you date an athlete
two types of Work attitudes
job satisfaction and organizational commitment
Job satisfaction
degree to which one has a positive assessment of one's job or job experiences.
Five specific dimensions of Job satisfaction
-pay
-work itself
-promotion opportunities
-supervision
-co-workers
Recent trend in job satisfaction
there's been a decline in job satisfaction

Job satisfaction => performance? only a small percent
-it's more likely that if you perform well you have high satisfaction
Job Satisfaction => performance stronger if:
-job involvement
-valued rewards are equitable and linked to performance
-intrinsic rewards are received
-challenging and accepted goals are set

Happy organizations => more productivity
More job satisfaction related to...
-(lower) absenteeism
-(lower) turnover and turnover intentions
-(lower) role stress and overall stress
-customer satisfaction and loyalty
-organizational citizenship behavior
-workplace deviance behavior
Organizational commitment
strength of an individual's identification with an organization.
-affective commitment
-normative commitment
-continuance commitment
Affective commitment
intention to remain in org. because of a strong desire to do so
Normative commitment
remain in org. because feel obligated
Continuance commitment
remain in org. because can't afford to leave
More org'l commitment is related to....
-(lower) absenteeism
-(higher) quality of work
-(higher) productivity
-(lower) turnover
-(higher) job satisfaction
Persuasion
One individual (source) tries to change the attitude of another person (the target)

Source characteristics
Target characteristics
Message characteristics
Source characteristics
expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness
Target characteristics
COME BACK TO IT
Message characteristics
the message you are trying to persuade people, does it go with current thinking? Ex: trying to stop smoking
Assimilation
the process through which members of a minority group become socialized into learning the ways of the majority group
-in organizations this entails hiring people from diverse backgrounds and attempting to mold them to fit into the existing organizational culture
General demographic changes
-average household - low of 2.55 people
-more urban - 80% live in or near cities
-Fewer children - more childless cities and neighborhoods
-More single people (median age of marriage for men - 28.6; 26.6 for women)
Benefits to Valuing Diversity
-Org. is more competitive (e.g., marketing)
-More perspectives -> better decision making
-Increased ability to adapt
-Ability to attract and retain good workers
Cultural Differences in Work Related Attitudes
- Individualism vs. collectivism
- Power distance (high and low power distance (India = high))
-Uncertainty avoidance
-Masculinity vs. femininity
-Time orientation
OB Levels
Benefits:
- individual (ex: getting paid)
- interpersonal (ex: fights with coworkers)
- group (ex: coworkers, work atmosphere)
- organizational (ex: discounts, career planning)

Bad:
-individual (ex: stress)
-interpersonal (ex: bad customers)
-group (ex: coworkers, work atmosphere)
-organizational (ex: work hours, dislike managers, disorganized)
10 Roles of Managers
-Interpersonal roles: figurehead, leader, liaison
-Informational roles: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
-Decisional roles: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Characteristics of the Perceiver
-familiarity with target
-attitudes
-mood
-self-concept: how you see yourself, if you have a positive self concept you'll see the positive in other people
-Cognitive structure: pattern of thinking, do I focus on your hair, do I focus on how you speak
Micro organizational behavior
concerned mainly with the behaviors of individuals working alone
Meso organizational behavior
a middle ground, bridging the other two subfields of organizational behavior. It primarily focuses on understanding the behaviors of people working together in teams and groups
Macro organizational behavior
Focuses on understanding the "behaviors" of entire organizations.
Organization
a collection of people and materials brought together to accomplish purposes not achievable through the efforts of individuals working alone.
Mission
purpose or reason for being
Division of labor
can enhance efficiency by simplifying tasks and making them easier to perform
Managers
are the people who plan, organize, direct, and control so as to manage organizations and organizational units
Scientific management perspective
the idea that through proper management an organization could achieve profitability and survive over the long term in the competitive world of business
Administrative principles perspective
focused on increasing the efficiency of administrative procedures
Theory X assumptions
1) The average person has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.
2) Because they dislike work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment before they will put forth effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives
3)The average person prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and desires security above all
Theory Y Assumptions
1. People do not naturally dislike work; work is a natural part of their lives.
2. People are internally motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed.
3. People are committed to goals to the degree that they receive personal rewards when they reach their objectives.
4. People will both seek and accept responsibility under favorable conditions.
5. People have the capacity to be innovative in solving organizational problems.
6. People are bright, but under most organizational conditions their potential is underutilized.
Open systems perspective
every organization is a system(a unified structure of interrelated subsystems)-and it is open-subject to the influence of the surrounding environment
Culture
the set of shared values, often taken for granted, that help people in a group, organization, or society understand which actions are considered acceptable and which are deemed unacceptable
Individualism
people in a culture define themselves primarily as individuals rather than as part of one or more groups or organizations
Collectivism
characterized by tight social frameworks in which people tend to base their identities on the group or organization to which they belong
Power distance (orientation to authority)
How readily accepting you are of higher powers. High power distance like India, Middle East. The US is low power distance because you have to earn respect
Uncertainty avoidance (preference for stability)
Degree to which you avoid uncertainty. High is a country that is afraid to do stuff. Low uncertainty avoidance takes more risk.
long term vs short term orientation
long-term values include focusing on the future, working on projects that have a distant payoff, persistence, and thrift

Short-term values are more oriented toward the past and the present and include respect for traditions and social abligations
What is Workforce diversity
refers to the important similarities and differences among the employees of organizations
Stereotype
a generalization about a person or a group of persons based on certain characteristics or traits
Prejudices
judgments about others that reinforce beliefs about superiority and inferiority
The Primary dimensions of diversity
those factors that are either inborn or exert extraordinary influence on early socialization
-include age, race and ethnicity, gender, physical and mental abilities and sexual orientation
-These factors make up the essence of who we are as human beings
Secondary dimensions of diversity
include factors that matter to us as individuals and that to some extent define us to others; however, they may be less permanent than primary dimensions and can be adapted or changed.
-these include educational background, geographical location, income, marital status, military experience, parental status, religious beliefs, and work experience
Define Valuing diversity
putting an end to the assumption that everyone who is not a member of the dominant group must assimilate
Service organization
one that transforms resources into an intangible output and creates time or place utility for its customers
Self-fullfilling prophecies
the expectation you have for someone which then affects your self esteem and ends up proving you right