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Final Test Questions
Terms in this set (23)
Why does Berlin believe that lack of recognition is often mistaken for lack of freedom? 21-22
Lack of recognition often leads to a disenfranchisement of an individual. Since the lack of recognition often comes from political and social representatives many mistake it for lack of freedom. When in reality it is the recognition they are lacking.
Explain the point of Nozick's Wilte Chamberlain example (962-3)?
This example exists to point out how much more one person can receive for doing the same thing. But the money he makes is justifiable as the people willingly gave him the 25 cents while the rest of the team received their agreed upon dividend.
Explain the difference between the concepts of tolerance and neutrality?
Tolerance implies that one is resisting stopping someone from doing the activity the one finds wrong. Neutrality implies that one accepts someone and their actions.
What, for Foucault, is the political significance of surveillance (984-5)?
Foucault suggests that there is power that resides in the people themselves of a sovereign. And that power can be suppressed by constant surveillance.
How does the question of tolerance challenge the case for liberal democracy?
Tolerance implies in a liberal democracy that everyone must resist the urge to impede anthers actions. But this may imply that there are different definitions of good and that this tolerance would allow "wrong" to appear in society.
What is the philosopher's "two-fold conflict with the polis' that Ardent identifies?
The philosopher that experiences a two-fold conflict with polis has found himself speechless for answer he seeks. Without speech he cannot be a political being.
What, according to Ardent, is the philosopher's distinction from is fellow citizens" (101)?
The philosopher does not posses any special truth but he remains open to endure wonder. This allows him to avoid any sway from people simply spouting opinions.
Explain Rawls' notion of reflective equilibrium (921)?
Reflective equilibrium is the idea that judgments and principles coincide with each other. It is not necessarily stable as it is subject to change based on how judgments and principles reflect its society.
Describe the two historical forms of self-direction identified by Berlin (881-3)?
Explain Rawls' concept of primary goods?
Primary goods are those that any rational man wants. He imagines as society were these good are distributed equally. And that any inequalities that appear must benefit the whole body of society. He moves that society doesn't need to be made equal, rather that the we improve the position that most are in.
How does Rawls's use of notion of the social contract differ from, say, Locke's (917)?
Rawls aims to use the social contracl more generically. The social contract should not be used to set up a government or society, rather it should be the object. He also suggest that only certain kinds of social cooperation lead to ones involvement in a society contrary to Locke whom that thinks one that has any social cooperation is consenting to a society.
Why does Rawls equate the original position with a state of nature (917)?
He does this so that society can reach a conception of justice. If a man is part of the state of nature then man can have no idea what a society would look like or what he would look like in society. The society must be just without bias of its makers.
Why does Rawls' claim that the principle of utility is incompatible with a "conception of social cooperation among equals for mutual advantage (918-9)?
Rawls claims that principle of utility could suggest a less quality of life in order to assure maximum advantages by summing them. A rational man would not accept its basic structure and therefore contradicts the "conception of social cooperation among equals for mutual advantage".
Under what conditions does Rawls believe that "there is no injustice in the greater benefits earned by a few? (919)?
It is not unjust along as the conditions of the less fortunate are improved.
How does Taylor explain the traffic light installation, and the law forbidding religious practices (903)?
Traffic lights in essence are impedance to one's ability to drive the road as they used to. He views this as the same as laws that impede his practice of religion. Something as simple as restricting the times of day (like stoplights) infringe on his freedom.
Why does Sandel believe that the "difference principle falls prey to the same objections as utilitarianism"?
The difference principle does not distinguish between community that is formed of "others" vs. that of relationships that are formed and made part of ones identity. Essentially there is no more importance of family or friends over any random stranger.
Why does Rawls believe that the choice of the two principle of just behind the veil of ignorance would be a maximin solution (929-930)?
Rawls claims that the veil of ignorance does not mean misinformation but the lack of information. He believes that if neither group knew anything about each other or themselves they would be forced to form the two principles of justice based on the idea of protecting themselves. Since they couldn't know what the other group would form for them.
Explain Nozick's claim that the term "distributive justice" is not neutral (957).
In distributive justice there is one group that aims to give out equal portions. Not only does this one group have too much power they are often not in a spot to distribute equal portions but to redistribute share withing a community. The redistribution is what makes it not neutral along with other nuances. In a free society shares are controlled by different people and others have opportunity to obtain them.
Describe Nozick's notion of a just distribution (958).
He believes that if a just situation occurs because of just steps towards the situation then it is just in and of itself. He acknowledges that this can be misconstrued often with stealing or coercion.
Explain the difference between Nozick's entitlement theory of justice and current time-slice princples of justice (959)?
Current time-slice principles of justice only compare who ends up with what and how equal the item is. Entitlement theory addresses the "how" the distribution came to terms.
How does Nozick explain that, contrary to end-result principles, historical principles of justice can find that two structurally identical distributions can differ in justice (959)?
Nozick explains that distributions are structurally identical if they present to be the same. As this is what end-result principles would compare. Historical principles can identify that what may look equal is not equal depending on who's hand it end up in.
How, according to Nozick, is the "Lockean proviso? not an end-state principle (966)?
Nozick uses the analogy of birds. Two birds sell based on the fact that they can receive more product form the others owners. But if an event were to wipe out one source of the product it become limited. Anything resulting form this limit would violate the Lockean proviso not the event itself.
How does Foucault understand genealogy and in what sense are genealogies anti-scientific (975)?
Foucault combines different types of knowledge into genealogy. Genealogies are anti-scientific as they do not attempt to be exact and they do not attack the structure of science but rather how they are linked to any institution or its functionality.