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141 terms

Religion 2 Midterm

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Alexander the Great
Macedonian king; conquered much of known world
Assyrian Exile
began the Diaspora
Augustus
imperial title given to Octavian from the Senate
Diaspora
Greek for "dispersion"; refers to the emigration of the Jews into areas outside the geophysical boundaries of Palestine
Essenes
Jews that withdrew from the world into the desert
Hebrew and Aramaic
languages Jesus most likely spoke
Israel and Judah
the two divided parts of the kingdom after Solomon's death
Joshua
Moses successor
Julius Caesar
named himself dictator for life in 44 BC
Latin and Greek
dominated languages of Roman world when Jesus was alive
Moses
led Jews out of captivity in Egypt
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace"; period of peace and prosperity during empire for 200 years
plebeians
common people
Pontifex Maximus
title meaning "high priest"
Romulus and Remus
two brothers who found Rome
Sadducees
dominated Sanhedrin
Tribunes
represented the plebeian class
Beatitudes
given on the Sermon on the Mount
Find in the Temple
Jesus was lost for three days and found preaching
Four Marks of the Church
one, holy, catholic, apostolic
Jesus' inaugural event of public ministry
his baptism by John the Baptist
Martyrdom
supreme witness given to the truth of the faith
Means and Goal of God's Plan
the Church
Passover
Holy Family was returning from when Jesus was lost for three days
Pentecost
The Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples; birthday of the Church
Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition
Deposit of Faith
Sermon on the Mount
Jesus gave the Beatitudes and the Lord's prayer
St. John
only apostle not a martyr; wrote gospel of St. John; "beloved disciple"
St. Matthew
gospel written in Aramaic
St. Paul
apostle to the Gentiles
St. Simeon
revealed to him by Holy Spirit that he would see the Messiah before he died
St. Stephen
the first Christian martyr
Agape
"love feast"; closely associated with Eucharist
Apocryphal
false narrative books on Jesus' life
Apologists
defend and explain the Catholic Faith
Apostolic Fathers
early Christian writers who came immediately after the Apostles
Baptism
in early Church many waited until close to death
Catechumens
in instructed; adults seeking admission into the Church
Christian Holiest Day of the Week
Sunday
Council of Trent
Church made its final definitive statement regarding the Canon of Scripture
Didache
teaching of the 12 apostles
Domestic Church
family; status conferred to the Church by Christianity
Ichthys
fish; "Jesus Christ Son of God Savior"
Monotheism
belief in one god
St. Augustine and war
self-defense
St. Monica
first used by Pope St. Gelasius I
Vicar of Christ
title given to pope saying he holds responsibility and supreme authority from Christ; first used by pope innocent III
Apostasy
willful renunciation of the faith in its entirety
Constantine
defeated Maxentius with the symbol of the cross on his army's armor
Diocletian
split empire into tetrarchy
Insulae
tenement home for middle and lower classes; wooden walls filled with rubble for insulation
Nero
St. Peter martyred during reign
St. Agnes
sentenced to brothel as persecution for her Christianity
St. Ignatius of Antioch
first person to use the term "Catholic Church"
St. Justin Martyr
converted by a mysterious old man when walking by the sea
St. Lawrence
fabled to have said "turn me over, I'm done on this side"
St. Perpetua and St. Felicity
martyrs; a noblewoman and her slave
The Way
early Christians referred to faith
Trajan
Eastern expedition was the last major conquest of the Roman Empire
Vox Populi
voice of the people
Apollinaris
denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ
Arianism
denied the divinity of Jesus Christ
Formal Heresy
free choice to hold tenets opposed to Church teaching
Gnosticism
divided people into two classes; spiritual and material
Gnosis
Greek word for knowledge
St. Athanasius
"the whole world has gone Arian; then it is Athanasius against the world"; combated Arianism
St. Augustine of Hippo
lived a life summarized by his constant affirmation of "Our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee, O Lord"
St. Hilary of Poitier
the Athanasius of the West
St. Jerome
wrote the Latin Vulgate; the first translation of the Bible into Latin from its original sources
Theodosius
cemented the union between Church and State by making Christianity the official religion of the empire
Theotokos
bearer of God
Traditor
any early Christian who renounced the Christian faith during the persecution; under Diocletian
A.D. 476
when Rome fell
Axus Mundi
a connection between heaven and earth
Huns
nomadic people of unknown ethnic origin and lacking culture; swept into Europe from North China
Islam
submission
Koran
the holy book of Islam
Opus Dei
work of God; habitual prayer in common for Benedictines
Patriarch of Constantinople
head of the Eastern Church
Pillars of Islam
five
Ramadam
the holy month of Islam
St. Gregory the Great
first pope to use servant of the servants of God
St. Leo the Great
met with Attila
St. Scholastica
twin sister of St. Benedict
Tours
where the Muslim invaders were defeated by the Christian in 732 AD
Vandals
most ruthless of the Germanic tribes
Visigoths and Ostrogoths
branches of the goths
Vows in the Benedictine Rule
poverty, chastity, and obedience
Franks
first Germanic tribe to convert
Mozarabs
Spanish under Muslim rule
Sacrament of Penance
Irish had great influence
St. Cyril and St. Methodius
"the Apostles of the Slavs"; used Slavonic language and developed the Glagolithic script
St. James and St. Paul
gave Christianity to Spain
St. Olga
introduced Christianity to Russia
St. Patrick
Apostle of Ireland
The Papal States
resulted from special relationship between papacy and Franks; made pope sovereign leader for first time
The Venerable Bede
St. Bede; the Father of English History
Waka
Oak of Thor; felled by St. Boniface
Alcuin
the best and most influential scholar of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Renaissance
result of Charlemagne's insistence upon classical renewal
Codex Justinianus
basis for canon law
Filioque
added to the Nicene Creed to clarify that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son
Icon
flat 2-dimensional picture of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint that serves as an invitation to pray
Iconoclast
image-breaker
Mayors of the Palace
Carolingians
Michael Cerularius
deleted pope's name from all liturgies
Pepin the Short
son of Charles Martel; father of Charlemagne
Second Ecumenical Council of Nicea
officially denounced iconoclasm
Cistercian Order
white monks; founded by St. Robert Molesme
Cluny
where monastic reform began; monks answered to the pope
Feudalism
result of collapse of Carolingian Empire
Frederick I
Barbarossa; ablest and most powerful ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Lay Investiture
appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers
Nepotism
the appointment of family members to important positions of authority
St. Thomas a Becket
martyred by Henry II for refusing to support his campaign to control the Church
Treaty of Verdun
divided Carolingian empire into three parts
Vikings
Norsemen who wreaked havoc on Europe
Albigensians
heresy that believed two gods ruled the universe
Children's Crusade
failure because many children died or were sold into slavery on the way to the Holy Land
Church's Incentives to Crusaders
indulgences, tax reductions, dissolution of debt
Islam after Muhammad's death
spread to North Africa, Asia Minor, and Palestine
Jacques de Molay
grand master of the Knights Templar; burned at the stake by French King Philip the Fair
Knights Hospitalers
Knights of Malta
Knights Templar
oldest order
St. Francis of Assisi
traveled to the Holy Land to preach the Gospel to the Muslim leader Sultan Malik-al-Kamil
The Crusades
from Latin word crux meaning cross; religious wars to liberate the Holy Land and make pilgrims safer to travel there
The Spanish Inquisition
began during reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Architecture
longest lasting artistic advance of the Middle Ages
Aristotle
author of Metaphysics
Beowulf
earliest example of vernacular literature
Double Truth Theory
compares theological tenets with philosophical truths
Giotto
work was pinnacle of Medieval painting
Gothic
style which allowed masons to decorate church with art
Scholasticism
branch of theology which holds that one can learn about God through the use of reason and is centered on the relationship between faith and reason
St. Anselm
father of Scholasticism
St. Bonaventure
considered the second founder of the Franciscans
St. Dominic Guzman
founder of the order of preachers
St. Thomas Aquinas
employed the use of Aristotle's philosophy to approach the truths of the Christian faith
Summa Theologiae
primary work of St. Thomas Aquinas
Univerisity of Bologna
known for its study of Jurisprudence
University of Oxford
claims founders such as the Trojans and a Saxon king