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Alexander the Great

Macedonian king; conquered much of known world

Assyrian Exile

began the Diaspora


imperial title given to Octavian from the Senate


Greek for "dispersion"; refers to the emigration of the Jews into areas outside the geophysical boundaries of Palestine


Jews that withdrew from the world into the desert

Hebrew and Aramaic

languages Jesus most likely spoke

Israel and Judah

the two divided parts of the kingdom after Solomon's death


Moses successor

Julius Caesar

named himself dictator for life in 44 BC

Latin and Greek

dominated languages of Roman world when Jesus was alive


led Jews out of captivity in Egypt

Pax Romana

"Roman Peace"; period of peace and prosperity during empire for 200 years


common people

Pontifex Maximus

title meaning "high priest"

Romulus and Remus

two brothers who found Rome


dominated Sanhedrin


represented the plebeian class


given on the Sermon on the Mount

Find in the Temple

Jesus was lost for three days and found preaching

Four Marks of the Church

one, holy, catholic, apostolic

Jesus' inaugural event of public ministry

his baptism by John the Baptist


supreme witness given to the truth of the faith

Means and Goal of God's Plan

the Church


Holy Family was returning from when Jesus was lost for three days


The Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples; birthday of the Church

Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition

Deposit of Faith

Sermon on the Mount

Jesus gave the Beatitudes and the Lord's prayer

St. John

only apostle not a martyr; wrote gospel of St. John; "beloved disciple"

St. Matthew

gospel written in Aramaic

St. Paul

apostle to the Gentiles

St. Simeon

revealed to him by Holy Spirit that he would see the Messiah before he died

St. Stephen

the first Christian martyr


"love feast"; closely associated with Eucharist


false narrative books on Jesus' life


defend and explain the Catholic Faith

Apostolic Fathers

early Christian writers who came immediately after the Apostles


in early Church many waited until close to death


in instructed; adults seeking admission into the Church

Christian Holiest Day of the Week


Council of Trent

Church made its final definitive statement regarding the Canon of Scripture


teaching of the 12 apostles

Domestic Church

family; status conferred to the Church by Christianity


fish; "Jesus Christ Son of God Savior"


belief in one god

St. Augustine and war


St. Monica

first used by Pope St. Gelasius I

Vicar of Christ

title given to pope saying he holds responsibility and supreme authority from Christ; first used by pope innocent III


willful renunciation of the faith in its entirety


defeated Maxentius with the symbol of the cross on his army's armor


split empire into tetrarchy


tenement home for middle and lower classes; wooden walls filled with rubble for insulation


St. Peter martyred during reign

St. Agnes

sentenced to brothel as persecution for her Christianity

St. Ignatius of Antioch

first person to use the term "Catholic Church"

St. Justin Martyr

converted by a mysterious old man when walking by the sea

St. Lawrence

fabled to have said "turn me over, I'm done on this side"

St. Perpetua and St. Felicity

martyrs; a noblewoman and her slave

The Way

early Christians referred to faith


Eastern expedition was the last major conquest of the Roman Empire

Vox Populi

voice of the people


denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ


denied the divinity of Jesus Christ

Formal Heresy

free choice to hold tenets opposed to Church teaching


divided people into two classes; spiritual and material


Greek word for knowledge

St. Athanasius

"the whole world has gone Arian; then it is Athanasius against the world"; combated Arianism

St. Augustine of Hippo

lived a life summarized by his constant affirmation of "Our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee, O Lord"

St. Hilary of Poitier

the Athanasius of the West

St. Jerome

wrote the Latin Vulgate; the first translation of the Bible into Latin from its original sources


cemented the union between Church and State by making Christianity the official religion of the empire


bearer of God


any early Christian who renounced the Christian faith during the persecution; under Diocletian

A.D. 476

when Rome fell

Axus Mundi

a connection between heaven and earth


nomadic people of unknown ethnic origin and lacking culture; swept into Europe from North China




the holy book of Islam

Opus Dei

work of God; habitual prayer in common for Benedictines

Patriarch of Constantinople

head of the Eastern Church

Pillars of Islam



the holy month of Islam

St. Gregory the Great

first pope to use servant of the servants of God

St. Leo the Great

met with Attila

St. Scholastica

twin sister of St. Benedict


where the Muslim invaders were defeated by the Christian in 732 AD


most ruthless of the Germanic tribes

Visigoths and Ostrogoths

branches of the goths

Vows in the Benedictine Rule

poverty, chastity, and obedience


first Germanic tribe to convert


Spanish under Muslim rule

Sacrament of Penance

Irish had great influence

St. Cyril and St. Methodius

"the Apostles of the Slavs"; used Slavonic language and developed the Glagolithic script

St. James and St. Paul

gave Christianity to Spain

St. Olga

introduced Christianity to Russia

St. Patrick

Apostle of Ireland

The Papal States

resulted from special relationship between papacy and Franks; made pope sovereign leader for first time

The Venerable Bede

St. Bede; the Father of English History


Oak of Thor; felled by St. Boniface


the best and most influential scholar of the Carolingian Empire

Carolingian Renaissance

result of Charlemagne's insistence upon classical renewal

Codex Justinianus

basis for canon law


added to the Nicene Creed to clarify that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son


flat 2-dimensional picture of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint that serves as an invitation to pray



Mayors of the Palace


Michael Cerularius

deleted pope's name from all liturgies

Pepin the Short

son of Charles Martel; father of Charlemagne

Second Ecumenical Council of Nicea

officially denounced iconoclasm

Cistercian Order

white monks; founded by St. Robert Molesme


where monastic reform began; monks answered to the pope


result of collapse of Carolingian Empire

Frederick I

Barbarossa; ablest and most powerful ruler of the Holy Roman Empire

Lay Investiture

appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers


the appointment of family members to important positions of authority

St. Thomas a Becket

martyred by Henry II for refusing to support his campaign to control the Church

Treaty of Verdun

divided Carolingian empire into three parts


Norsemen who wreaked havoc on Europe


heresy that believed two gods ruled the universe

Children's Crusade

failure because many children died or were sold into slavery on the way to the Holy Land

Church's Incentives to Crusaders

indulgences, tax reductions, dissolution of debt

Islam after Muhammad's death

spread to North Africa, Asia Minor, and Palestine

Jacques de Molay

grand master of the Knights Templar; burned at the stake by French King Philip the Fair

Knights Hospitalers

Knights of Malta

Knights Templar

oldest order

St. Francis of Assisi

traveled to the Holy Land to preach the Gospel to the Muslim leader Sultan Malik-al-Kamil

The Crusades

from Latin word crux meaning cross; religious wars to liberate the Holy Land and make pilgrims safer to travel there

The Spanish Inquisition

began during reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella


longest lasting artistic advance of the Middle Ages


author of Metaphysics


earliest example of vernacular literature

Double Truth Theory

compares theological tenets with philosophical truths


work was pinnacle of Medieval painting


style which allowed masons to decorate church with art


branch of theology which holds that one can learn about God through the use of reason and is centered on the relationship between faith and reason

St. Anselm

father of Scholasticism

St. Bonaventure

considered the second founder of the Franciscans

St. Dominic Guzman

founder of the order of preachers

St. Thomas Aquinas

employed the use of Aristotle's philosophy to approach the truths of the Christian faith

Summa Theologiae

primary work of St. Thomas Aquinas

Univerisity of Bologna

known for its study of Jurisprudence

University of Oxford

claims founders such as the Trojans and a Saxon king

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