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Week 3 - Community Assessment
Terms in this set (20)
Attributes of healthy community
-Critical step in helping to create healthy communities is to know the community.
-Accomplished through Community Assessment
-Safe, healthy environment
-Offers access to health care services that focus on prevention
& tx for all members of the community
-Infrastructure and recreational activities to meet needs of the population
-Collaborate effectively to identify needs
-Identify priorities and goals
-Agree on ways and means to implement goals
-Collaborate effectively in the required actions
Concept of health
-Health: holistic state of well-being, including soundness of mind, body & spirit
-Wellness: health plus the capacity to develop one's potential, leading to a fulfilling and productive life
-Illness: state of being relatively unhealthy
A group of people, often living in a defined geographical area, who may share a common culture, values and norms, and are arranged in a social structure according to relationships which the community has developed over a period of time
Types of Communities: Geographic Community
-Defined by geographic boundaries
-Helpful to define boundaries in community health
-Examples: Global community; City, town, neighborhood
Types of Communities: Common-interest
-Collection of people with common interests, conditions or goals
-May be widely scattered - not defined by geography
-Examples: Churches, Professional organizations, People with HIV or cancer
Types of Communities: Community of solution
-A group of people that come together to solve a problem that affects them all
-Researchers trying to find a cure for disease
-Public health nurses implementing interventions to dec homelessness of a pop.
Assessing the Community
-A community‐wide group of people as the focus of nursing service
-The community directly influences the health of individuals, families, groups, subpopulations, and populations who area part of it.
-Provision of the most health services occurs at the community level
Community Health assessment using the "Community-as-Partner" model
-Reflects synthesis of Nursing Practice and Public Health
-Four Concepts: Person, environment, health, nursing.
***-Two central factors: Community as a partner, Nursing Process
**-Normal line of defense: level of health
**-Flexible line of defense: buffer
**-Lines of resistance: strengths
**-Stressors: tension producing, disrupt community
**-Degree of reaction: response to stress/resiliency
-Identify community or population.
-Specify boundaries (physical, geographic, characteristics)
-Determine the type of data needed.
-Potential sources of data.
Why do we have 8 sub-systems of the community?
-Represent the broad determinants of health
-The eight sub systems are divided by broken lines to remind us that they are not discrete and separate but influence one another. (Remember that one of the principles of ecology is that every thing is connected to every thing else.)
What are the 8 sub-systems?
-Physical Environment: weather, climate, housing conditions, density, sanitation, air/water quality, vector control, animals, nuisance factors.
-Health & Social Services: are services accessible/available, restaurants, groceries, culture and religion, services, health education.
-Safety & Sanitation: Protective services, sanitation and waste.
-Transportation: Public, private, availability and utilization, cost, reliability.
-Communication: media sources, health communications, informal communications
-Economic: household items, poverty rates, employment rates, major industry or occupations
-Politics and Government: leadership, structure, major affiliations, resources, program emphasis, current/recent political issues.
-Education:schools-number/size/staff‐student ratio, educational levels,drop‐out rates, test scores.
-Recreation: Leisure activities, recreational facilities, availability, cost, risk factors
**Source of community data
-Primary (I have collected the data myself): gathered by talking to the people
-Observation- Windshield Survey
-Interviews with key informants
-Secondary (someone else has collected the data): records produced by people who know the community well
-International, National, State, local
-Key info: anyone who is a stakeholder (ex. parents, teachers, community leaders, etc.), anyone with knowledge of the issue including health profs and lay residents
-Systemic collection of opinion data fr interviews of community membs
-# of interviews depends on resources and health topic being investigated
-obtained fr visual exam of the community
-provides contextual info
-data already collected that provides info on the pop. or community subsystems
Nursing Process: Assess community core
-Represents the people who make up the community. Included in data to describe the community's core are the population's social demographics (age, sex and ethnic distribution, SECS, culture, edu and employment levels, vital statistics) and the community's values/beliefs/hx
-Leading causes of morbidity and mortality
Analyze data and community dx
-Summarize problem areas, strengths, assets, barriers.
-Look for gaps (may need to collect additional information), patterns. Use the assessment data to make a diagnosis.
-Problem statement (similar to nursing dx) - actual, potential, emerging threats to community health.
-Purpose of community dx is to define existing problems, determine available resources and set priorities for planning, implementing and evaluating health action, by and for the community
When formulating a community dx, you?
-Portray a community focus
-Include community response and related factors that have potential for change via CHN; logically consistent; response and factors logically linked
-Include statements narrow enough to guide interventions
-Include factors within the domain of community health nursing intervention
-Deficit and wellness diagnoses (include maintenance or potential change responses) when no actual deficit is present
Nursing Process: Nursing dx
-Description of the problem, response, state
-High rate of STD's
-Etiology (related to factors)
-r/t: developmental stage, university environment, lack of university health services
-Signs and symptoms characteristic of the problem
-S: 21/25 students interviewed stated "they really don't plan ahead for safe sexual encounters.
-O: no clinic on campus, nearest clinic >2 miles away. Did not see any health information available in dorms, common area
Nursing Process: Planning to Meet Community Health Needs; Implementing Plans
-Tools for assistance: define obj (measurable) & activities to meet obj. Systemic approach based on HP 2020 goals/objs
-Identify the interventions that will help the community reach desired goals
-Goal: inc access to edu materials, inc safe sex practice awareness
- Outcomes: dec rate of std's over 6mo
-Activities or actions
-give classes, orientation, monthly awareness campaign, place displays in dorms and common areas
Nursing Process: Evaluating the intervention
-Measuring or judging effectiveness of goal or out come attainment (what will you use to measure? Data?)
-Types of evaluation
-Formative/process: focus on process during actual interventions; development of performance standards
-How did the interventions work.
-Summative/outcomes: focus on the outcomes of interventions; effect; impact
-Was there a decrease in std's reported? How much
-Did students surveyed report an increase in awareness of resources
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
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