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1.1-4 lb during first trimester then 1 lb/week during 2nd and 3rd trimester. 25-35 lb. no dieting and no eating for two
increase of 300 cals during second and third trimester
1 3/4 lb per week, 1/2 lb/ week
8-12 oz fluid/day, 4-6 glasses of water; make sure its not soda, iced tea, etc.
iron and folic acid
iron: 27 mg/day, 400 mcg/day
influences on nutrition
n&v, heartburn, constipation, cultural ethnic and religious influences, hunger and appetite (bloating, baby can be pushed against stomach), alternative therapies (need to know if taking herbs, etc), vegetarianism, allergies (lactose intolerance)
non-nutritive sweetners, nitrates, energy drinks, caffeine
encourage consumption of 8-12 oz, accumulates in brain and causes nerve damage, avoid deep/old fish like swordfish, mackerel and shark.
listeria and salmonella
avoid raw cheese and foods- smoked fish, brie, feta, blue cheese, mexican cheese, raw eggs.
causes PTL, SAB, demise
symptoms: flu like, fever, stiffneck, dizzy, convulsions, can lead to death. keep foods refrigerated, eat only cooked meat.
10-12 lb weight loss immediately, usually takes about 6 months. nursing mothers lose faster. want them to lose weight so start out subsequent pregnancy healthy
What can iron supplements and prenatal vitamins cause?
what nutritional deficiencies do vegan pregnant women face?
vitamin b12, folic acid, iron and protein
what are special considerations for nutrition with pregnant women?
adolescents (compete for iron and Ca with fetus, don't eat well or gain enough weight, worse if less than 16)
social factors (poor- cheap foods are usually processed), PICA ( might see other nutritional deficiencies, may indicate iron deficiency), eating disorders, substance abuse, psychological problems.
what are fetal risks with maternal malnutrition?
neural tube defects- no folic acid, IUGR- baby is not growing correctly, SGA/LGA- struggle after delivery, scurvy (vitamin C), congenital anomalies (vitamin A decreased, glucose increased is a teratogen)
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