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Terms you should be aware of from Chapter 20 from AMSCO on US Foreign Policy 1865-1914.
Terms in this set (68)
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) - aimed to excite American imperialist interests; media bias, subjective representation of events
Leader of rebel army of Filipino revolution, led group fighting US occupation after the US helped him win independence
(1898) a rider to the war resolution with Spain whereby Congress pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba, and that it would recognize Cuba's independence from Spain.
(n) extreme and emotional nationalism, or chauvinism, often characterized by an aggressive foreign policy,accompanied by an eagerness to wage war. (Spanish American War)
Secretary of State John Hay
ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes' acceptance from the major powers
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. Sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the European Powers
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade in 1853, thus bringing western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
1854 treaty between Japan and the US. Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships
Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Gentlemen's Agreement (1907)
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration and US pledged to stop discrimination of Japanese in California.
Arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867, for less than 2 cents per acre. Called "Seward's Folly" & "Seward's Icebox" in media.
(1867-1912)The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
US involvement in Imperialism because...
1. worldwide markets for Industrial and agricultural surplus
2. sources of raw materials for manufacturing
3. safety valve for unhappiness at home
-advocates of US expansionist policy hope to achieve through economic and diplomatic means, not military action)-- Did they?
Author of Our Country: Its Possible Future and Current Crisis-- on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas
Alfred T. Mahan
Wrote a book saying that all great empires had an incredible sea power "Influence of Sea Power upon History"----- Does this book influence American foreign policy?
Pan American Conference / Pan Americanism
Meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors. Pan-Americanism - James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.; rejected by Latin America due to fear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market
Richard Olney & Venezuelan Border Dispute (1895-1896)
Secretary of State under President Cleveland. US mediated border dispute with Venezuela and British colony of Guiana. He used Monroe Doctrine to justify U.S. mediation of the Venezuelan boundary dispute. Britain finally agree to US demands and arbitration. Latin American nations appreciated US effort to protect them from domination. Also, turning point in US-British relations and stronger friendship throughout coming century.
Cuba & Spanish Rule (Cuban Revolt)
Cuban nationalists fighting to overthrow Spanish rule. In 1895 adopted strategy of sabotaging and laying waste to Cuban plantations in order to force Spanish withdrawal OR involve the US in revolution.
General Valeriano Weyler
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using "brutal" methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
Considered a cause of the Spanish-American War - letter from the Spanish ambassador criticizing President McKinley which was published in the Hearst newspaper.
meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish-American War. 260 American sailors died. "Remember the Maine, an to Hell with Spain" became rally cry. Cartoons portrayed Spanish as "monsters and murderers"
McKinley War Message
4 reasons fro war
1. "End Barbarities, bloodshed, starvation and horrible miseries" in Cuba
2. Protect lives & property of US citizens in Cuba
3. "end serious injury to commerce, trade and business of our people"
4. End "constant menace to our peace" arising from disorders in Cuba
a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War. Fought in Cuba (San Juan Hill)-- TR became hero to American people and later became governor of NY and Vice President to McKinley.
Where were the TR get his Rough Rider Regiment uniform made? that's right.....Brooks Brothers
Platt Amendment (1901)
1) Cuba makes no treaty with foreign power if in endangers independence 2) Cuba no excessive public debt 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US can maintain naval bases in Cuba, including one at Guantanamo Bay
5000 vs. 500
5000 US soldiers died from malaria, typhoid and dysentery in Spanish American War
Less than 500 died in battle
"Splendid Little War"
term used by John Hay in a letter to Teddy Roosevelt; all of Spain's ships were destroyed in 7 hours; war was short and effective -- Less than 500 Americans also died from actual fighting.
"You furnish the Pictures, I'll furnish the War"
This quote has been attributed to the king of yellow-journalism: William Randolph Hearst in his desire to inflame passions against the Spanish to which a war could be started against.
Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898. Earlier, President Grover Cleveland had rejected efforts to annex Hawaii because the majority of Hawaiians opposed annexation to the US.
Insular Cases (1901-1903)
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops. Xenophobia- Fear of foreigners also involved in rebellion
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen-- "speak softly and carry a big stick". Imperialists applauded BUT critics disliked breaking from tradition of non-involvement in global politics.
Assassination of McKinley
1901 at the Pan American Exhibition in Buffalo, NY. Assassinated by Leon Czolgosz, an Eastern European immigrant/anarchist. Teddy Roosevelt (TR) becomes President.
Spanish-american War necessitated a canal to hold far flung islands in Pacific (Philippines). A Canal through Central America connecting Atlantic to Pacific oceans would be of national importance (National Security and Trade).
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty
1903, Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Panama's ambassador to the United States signed-- granting rights to the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal
Revolution in Panama
Roosevelt was eager to begin construction of a canal, Colombia controlled the isthmus of Panama, refused to agree to US terms for digging, Roosevelt supported revolt in Panama in 1903, rebellion succeeded, land for canal was granted to US. In 1921, US paid $21 million to Colombia for its loss of Panama.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
"The first great war of the 20th century," it grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the Japanese public had expected more.
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Roosevelt Nobel Peace Prize
(1906) TR negotiated the treaty to end the Russo-Japanese War (1905)- First American to win a Nobel Peace Prize
Dollar Diplomacy (Taft)
A policy for "substituting dollars for bullets" by William Howard Taft. It would link American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad without force, but with investments. Used in East Asia and Latin America. US bankers invest in railroads in China.
United States military interventions in Nicaragua to protect American investments (1911) and sent marines in 1912 when civil war broke out. Us Marines remained until 1933
Lodge Corollary (1912)
Addition to Monroe Doctrine suggested by republican Henry Cabot Lodge. Stated non-European powers (ie. Japan) would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.
Jones Act (1916)
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years. guaranteed bill of rights and universal male suffrage to Filipino citizens & territorial statues to the Philippines
In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.
A Mexican peasant rebel leader who sought to overthrow the Mexican government and stop Carranza from taking it over first, gathering an army in Northern Mexico and, in anger at President Wilson's support of Carranza, eventually terrorized Americans in Mexico and burned Columbus, New Mexico. Wilson ssent General John Pershing to pursue villa into Mexico. This expeditionary force, as it was called, was in Mexico for several months and could not capture Villa. Angered Carranza government
Spanish-American War 1898
Treaty of Paris (1898)
1. Cuban Independence
2. US acquisition of two Spanish islands- Puerto Rico and Guam
3. US acquisition of Philippines for $20 million
organized to fight the McKinley administration's expansionist policies; members included the presidents of Stanford and Harvard Universities, philosopher William James, novelist Mark Twain, labor leader Samuel Gompers, and steel titan Andrew Carnegie, objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire.
Historian/Historiography (Historian's interpretation of history). "Empire or Humanity"-- Has the US always been expansionist and building an American Empire? What are Zinn's arguments and evidence? Thesis? Do you agree?
Buffalo Soldiers & African-American Soldiers
"Buffalo Soldiers"Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s. African-American soldiers also served in the Spanish-American War. Often trains carrying African-American soldiers caused tensions among several southern states. Some trains carrying African-Americans were shot at while traveling through the South to Florida for eventual fighting in Cuba.
Was Spanish American War a Turning Point in US Foreign Policy?
Analyze the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in American foreign policy.
American Expansionism Comparison 1840 & 1890?
Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840's with those that took place in the
1890's, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras
Comparing Foreign Policies of Presidents?
Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Theodore Roosevelt , William Howard Taft & Woodrow Wilson
US Foreign Policy?
United States foreign policy between 1815 and 1920 was determined less by economic than strategic, moral, or political interests. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to at least TWO major episodes ( for example: treaties, wars, proclamations, annexations, etc.) in the foreign policy of the United States between 1815 and 1910.
Population Shift in America?
Analyze the primary causes of the population shift from a rural to an urban environment in the United States between
1875 and 1925.
American Expansionism Comparisons?
Both the Mexican War and the Spanish American War were premeditated resulting from deliberately calculated schemes of robbery on the part of a superior power against weak and defenseless neighbors.
Spanish American War and Panama Canal.
watch from 4:33 to 10:00
Who Said it?
"I took the Canal Zone and let Congress debate; and while the debate goes on, the canal does also."
America: Reluctant Imperialist?
Many historians portray America as a "reluctant imperialist" who was not eager to expand American power around the world, but more willing to spread democratic values. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement for the years 1898-1920.
A U.S. territory; the U.S. gained it from Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Rican now have U.S. citizenship
A view that Asian immigrants in the late 19th Century threatened US society because of cultural differences from the white majority. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) & Gentleman's Agreement is example of this placed into US government legislation.
(1900) act establishing a civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully American nor fully independent. Also placed a tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.
General Velariano Weyler
"The Butcher Weyler"; General Valeriano Weyler was nicknamed the butcher due to his harsh treatments of Cubans before the Spanish-American War. during war. He commanded Spanish troops during the Spanish-American war.
American Exceptionalism: Imperialism
A theme in American history is one of "American Exceptionalism", a idea that the United States is qualitatively different and more virtuous than other nation states. Choose 3 of the following and discuss to what extent did we live up to this image in foreign policy 1896-1920.
2. Creation of Panama Canal
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