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CDDS 172- Test 1
Terms in this set (46)
involves the diagnosis an treatment of nervous system disorders
•deals with diseases that disrupt the normal structural and physiological properties of the nervous system and include:
-Vascular disorders, neoplastic conditions, degenerative conditions, motor disorders, deficiency disorders, bacterial and viral infections, epileptic disorders
involves surgery for removal and remediation of pathologic structures that impair functional organization of the nervous system
involves structural framework of the nervous system, consisting of nerve cells (neurons), fiber tracts, nerves, ventricular structures, vascular networks, and supporting glial and meningeal structures
involves imaging techniques for differentiating pathologic changes of the CNS. In addition, radiation therapy for nervous system tumors is a subspecialty of neuroradiology.
deals with growth of the nervous system during the embryonic period of development extending from conception to 7 weeks, at which time, all brain structures have anatomically emerged.
focuses on the functional properties of the nervous system with respect to its structural, chemical, electrical, and metabolic composition essential to living organisms
deals with the nature and etiology of diseased tissue that structurally and functionally disrupts the nervous system
a. Paul Broca
best known contribution to neurology is the concept of functional localization by cerebral convolution. Foremost among his conclusions were the assertions that:(1) the two hemispheres of the brain are asymmetrical in function, and (2) the left hemisphere contains the language center in most humans
b. William Ogle
demonstrated that a cerebral writing center was independent of Broca's center for oral language; later known as agraphia
c. Carl Wernicke
identified an auditory speech center in the temporal lobe; lesions in Wernicke's area produced a sensory aphasia; He not only emphasized the importance of cortical language centers associated with the various language modalities, he also emphasized the importance of association fiber tracts which connected various areas or centers in the brain.
d. Joseph Dejerine
The modern understanding or alexia is attributed to him; In current usage, alexia is an acquired reading disorder.In contrast, dyslexia, is an innate or constitutional inability to learn to read. This childhood disorder is often called developmental dyslexia.
e. Hugo Liepmann
is credited with elucidating the concept of apraxia around the turn of the century; used early disconnection theory (e.g., correlating lesion locations with clinical deficits) to explain apraxia and demonstrated lesion sites to support the variety of apraxias he described
f. Sigmund Freud
is probably best known as the founder of psychoanalysis, his monumental work. The term agnosia was introduced into neurology by him
g. Jean Charcot
the French neurologist, was a brilliant clinician and a neuropathologist who created neurology as a firm discipline.
h. William Gowers
an English neurologist, surveyed the neurologic speech disorders known as dysarthrias, in the textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System," published in 1888.
i. Korbinian Brodmann
The most popular map was developed by a this German neurologist, in which each area of the cortex is numbered. His map provides a convenient tool in clinical practice with which to indicate cortical location.
j. Wilder C. Penfield
The neurologic speech mechanism was advanced after World War II by ___ and his colleagues in Canada.____ a neurosurgeon, used a technique of electrical cortical stimulation to map cortical areas directly, particularly speech and language centers.
k. Norman Geschwind
is one of two towering figures that have dominated the field of speech and language over the past 40 years. He is credited with almost resurrecting the early neurologic literature of Europe focusing on language disorders and related deficits. highlighted the value of (1) identifying lesions in the connective pathways of the brain as well as (2) diagnosing lesions in the traditional localized cortical areas of the brain that has been associated with language disorders for over a century.
l. Noam Chomsky
is acknowledged with creating a scientific revolution in the understanding of syntax and other components of language; he argues that every human being has the innate capacity to use language
m. Roger Sperry
Split brain studies reported by ____ and his colleagues (1969) indicated specific functions of the right hemisphere as different from the left hemisphere; his research suggests that the corpus callosum plays a decisive role in transmitting language heard in the right ear to the left hemisphere, where it is processed by the major mechanisms for speech and language
I. Bilateral anatomical symmetry
The two cerebral hemispheres are similar anatomically, with only minor differences; Both hemispheres are connected through the corpus callosum, the largest of the commissural fibers
I. Unilateral Functional Difference
At birth, the two hemispheres has the functional ability to develop all types of skills. However, after the first few years, each hemisphere acquires an advantage over the other for different specialized functions.
II. Contralateral Sensorimotor control
All sensory and motor fibers in the nervous system decussate (cross) the body's midline. The left motor cortex controls movements in the right half of the body. Thus, the sensory information from the left hand of the body projects to the right sensory cortex.
e. Structural and functional specialization
The neuraxis of sensory and motor systems possess specialized nerve cells that are functionally specific and separable. Consequently, white matter in the brain is composed of many parallel and adjacent pathways conducting various types of information.
f. Topographical organization in cortical pathways
The spatial arrangement of peripheral receptors on the body is discretely maintained within the information-carrying pathway and is projected to the brain. This spatial organization of neurons, tracts, and terminals reflects the spatial relationships of the body surface and functionally related muscle groups.
g. Placticity in the brain
Functional plasticity is the ability to reorganize and modify functions and adapt to internal and external changes. The inherent plasticity of brain cells permits repair of cortical circuitry, integrates other cortical areas to serve changed functions, and responds to various pathologies
h. Nonmythical brain
The brain's functioning is straightforward. Its operations are not governed by any personal characteristics of gender, color or cultural variations. Its power is judged by the efficiency with which it remembers, processes information, generates responses, attends to tasks, plans, programs, makes decisions, and projects information.
a. Rostral (pertains to brain)
front of brain (forehead)
b. Caudal (pertains to brain)
back of brain
c. Dorsal (pertains to brain)
top of brain
d. Ventral (pertains to brain)
bottom of brain
e. Anterior (pertains to brain)
indicates towards the front.
f. Posterior (pertains to brain)
indicates towards the back
g. Superior (pertains to brain)
refers to upper. Cranial or cephalic can be used in place of superior
h. Inferior (pertains to brain)
i. Lateral (pertains to brain)
means further from the median plane.
j. Medial (pertains to brain)
means towards the medial plane.
a. Rostral ( pertain to spinal cord)
refers to locations toward the brain
b. Caudal ( pertain to spinal cord)
refers to the coccygeal end of the spinal cord,
c. Dorsal ( pertain to spinal cord)
refers to locations toward the back of the body
d. Ventral ( pertain to spinal cord)
refers to locations toward the abdomen.
is a vertical cut at any point that passes longitudinally and divides the brain into left and right portions.
is a sagittal section as the center separates the brain into two equal halves.
a vertical section made perpendicular to the saggital section, divides the brain into front and back.
a cut perpendicular to both the coronal and saggital planes, divides the brain into upper and lower parts
is any section that is at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the structure.
Sets found in the same folder
CDDS 172 Test #1
CDDS 172- Test 1- Brodmann Areas
Neural Basis of Speech, Language and Hearing
CDDS 172 Test #3
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