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41 terms

structures of lower respiratory tract

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larynx
cartilaginous structure connecting the pharynx and trachea at the level of the cervical vertebrae; surrounds and protects the glottis and prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea; houses vocal cords; conducts air in and out of trachea through the glottis; composed of a framework of muscles and cartilages bound by elastic tissue
glottis
structure that conducts air in and out of the trachea through a narrow opening; opening just below vocal cords, triangular slit over trachea; closes to keep food and liquid from entering trachea; open during breathing
thyroid cartilage
prominent in males; known as the laryngeal prominence aka Adam's apple; largest cartilage of the larynx
vocal cords
folds of muscle and connective tissue with a mucous membrane covering; makes sound by air forced through the glottis between true _____ _____ causing them to vibrate from side to side making sound waves
phonation
sound waves produced
articulation
the turning of sounds into words by altering the shapes of the pharynx and oral cavity and using the tongue and lips
pitch
diameter, length, and tension in vocal folds determine ________
false vocal cords
muscles responsible for controlling tension in the vocal folds and sealing of the glottis during swallowing
laryngitis
when mucous membrane becomes inflamed and swollen due to infection or vapors; vocal cords cannot vibrate freely so person is unable to speak; mild or can completely obstruct airway
epiglottis
a laryngeal cartilage, flap-like structure that allows air to enter larynx; projects superior to glottis and forms lid over it to keep food from going into larynx; upright during breathing
coughing reflex
when food or liquids get too close to the entrance of the glottis it triggers the ______ ______
trachea
flexible tube extending down in front of the esophagus and into the thoracic cavity where it splits
bronchi
trachea splits into the left and right _______
ciliated
trachea is lined with ________ mucous membrane that entraps particles and moves up toward the pharynx where mucus can be swallowed
hyaline cartilage
tracheal wall has about 20 rings, which keep trachea from collapsing and blocking airway, made of of _______ ______ with smooth muscle and connective tissue fill the gap between the ends of the rings
soft tissue
complete rings of trachea, allow esophagus to expand as food moves through it to the stomach
bronchial tree
consists of branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs
primary bronchi
branching of bronchial tree start with the left and right ______ ______
hilus
primary bronchi travel to a groove along the medial surface of the lung called the _____ of the lung; it provides access for entry to pulmonary vessels, nerves, and lymphatics; attached to mediastinum by dense connective tissue, fixes positions of major nerves, vessels, and lymphatic vessels
secondary bronchi
each primary bronchus divides into ________ _______, which branches into finer tubes; goes to each lobe of lungs so the right lung as 3 and left lung has 2
cartilage
as bronchii become smaller, there is no _______ in the tubes
bronchioles
smaller tubes that continue to divide and give rise to terminal bronchioles
smooth muscles
lines the walls of bronchioles
diameter
varying _________ of bronchioles controls resistance to airflow and distribution of air in lungs
autonomic
________ nervous system regulates activity of smooth muscle in bronchioles
sympathetic activation
________ ________ leads to bronchodilation
parasympathetic activation
_________ _________ leads to bronchoconstriction
alveoli
connected to bronchioles along alveolar ducts; air sacs that lie within capillary nets
alveolar sacs
alveolar ducts end at _______ ______, common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli
oxygen
diffuses through alveolar walls and enters blood in nearby capillaries
carbon dioxide
diffuses from blood through the walls and enters alveoli
lungs
soft, spongy, cone-shaped organs in thoracic cavity; have distinct lobes divided by deep fissures
right
lung that has three lobes - superior, middle, and inferior
left
lung has two lobes - superior and inferior
bronchus
______ and some large blood vessels suspend each lung in the cavity; enter lung on its medial surface
visceral pleura
layer of serous membrane called the _______ _______ attached to each lung surface
parietal pleura
when visceral pleura folds back to become the _______ _______ and form a double walled sac; forms part of mediastinum and lines inner walls of thoracic cavity
pleural cavity
potential space between visceral and parietal pleurae; no significant space actually exists; contains think film of serous fluid called pleural fluid
pleural fluid
lubricates adjacent pleural surfaces, reducing friction as they move against one another during breathing
surface tension
pleural fluid helps hold pleural membranes together by creating _______ ________
pleurisy
pleural inflammation and pain that arises when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between opposing pleural surfaces; condition that occurs with many diseases