Chapter 5 - Cognitive Process
Terms in this set (35)
the brief, immediate memory for the material we are currently processing
long term memory
has large capacity; it contains your memory for experiences and information you have accumulated throughout your lifetime
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
describes your organized knowledge of the world, including your knowledge about words and factual information
A type of long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
First stage of the memory process; in it information is transformed or coded (a transduction process) into a form that can be processed further and stored
the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory
The proposal that deep, meaningful kinds of information processing lead to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing. also known as levels-of-processing approach.
stimulus is different from other memory traces
Cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
the finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
The principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context. In contrast, forgetting often occurs when the two contexts do not match
memory task in which one must retrieve information from long-term memory with only minimal retrieval cues
memory task in which one must identify correct information among incorrect statements or irrelevant information
reaction to certain stimulus
more general, long lasting experience
The Pollyanna Principle
When pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant memories, this is called
tendency for people to remember more positive than negative information with age
You recall material more accurately if it is congruent with your current mood
explicit memory task
a memory task in which participants are specifically instructed to retrieve information that they have previously learned (for example, to recognize or recall information)
implicit memory task
an indirect measure of memory. Participants see the material (usually a series of words or pictures). Later, during the test phase, they are instructed to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for either recall or recognition. Previous experience with the material facilitates performance on the later task.
repetition priming task
Recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word, when you are given a cue that could evoke many different words.
occurs when a variable has large effect on one test but not on another kind of test
A significant memory loss that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. See also Anterograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia.
A loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injury
Loss of memory for events or information learned before the amnesia-inducing brain injury
Having extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of a particular domain.
phenomenon in which people are generally more accurate in identifying members of your own ethnic group than members of another ethnic group
Recollected events that belong to a person's life. Includes both episodic memory (more in recent memories) and semantic memory (more in distant memories)
A knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that provides expectations about topics, eve4nts, objects, people, and situation in one's life.
selective recall of past events to fit our current beliefs
involves making attributions about the origins of memories
The process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (our perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (our thoughts and imaginations).
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
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