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SMAD 150-JMU Exam #1
Terms in this set (88)
What is Media Literacy?
The ability to understand, analyze, and use words, images, sound, and multimedia formats.
What are the 4 dimensions for analysis?
1. Communication Technologies
2. The Economics of Mediated Communication
3. The Functions of Media in Everyday Life
4. The Meaning of Messages in the Media
Being media literate means understanding how new media change (and are changed by) the cultures that adopt them
The Economics of Mediated Communication
Being media literate involves knowing how ownership and profit influence who gets to say (and sell) what to whom
The Functions of Media in Everyday Life
Being media literate entails becoming aware of how you use media & their contents to satisfy your personal & social needs.
The Meaning of Messages in the Media
Being media literate means questioning how others select & shape the "stories"that validate (or negate) your life.
Key Idea of Potter's Chapter 1
In order to survive in our information-saturated culture, we put our minds on "automatic pilot" to protect ourselves from the flood of media messages we constantly encounter.
What is the danger of autopilot?
The danger with this automatic processing of messages is that it allows the media to condition our thought process.
What is Message Saturation and Exposure?
1. More information available
than ever before
2. Production of information
3. Media put us in exposure
4. Now we have to make good
What is the information problem?
It used to be gaining access to info, now it is trying to protect ourselves from too much info
What are 5 ways we can improve our media literacy?
1. Take control
2. Think critically
3. Process messages actively
5. Build the life you want
What is the key idea of Potter's chapter 2?
Media literacy is a set of perspectives we actively use to expose ourselves to the media and interpret the meaning of the messages we encounter. It is multidimensional and a continuum.
What is Potter's definition of media literacy?
A set of perspectives that we actively use to expose ourselves to the media to interpret the meaning of the messages we encounter.
in the middle of a communication process, between the sender and receiver of a message
define traditional mass media
technologies that allow communication from one place to be received in many places by a large audience
Characteristics of traditional mass media (print & broadcast)
1. Known sender/anonymous receiver
2. One-way communication (not interactive)
3. Clear distinction between producers & receivers
Characteristics of traditional mass media
1. known senders but unknown receivers
2. usually one-way
Characteristics of new mass media (internet)
1. The Notion of known senders & anonymous receivers is problematic
2. often interactive
-An approach that identifies technology, or technological advances, as the central causal element in processes of social change.
-"To understand the relationship between media and society, the most important question is not 'What does a new technology do to people?' but, instead, 'How do people use the new technology?'"
Social construction of Media
Media technologies may have inherent capabilities that predispose them toward certain uses, but ultimately those uses are determined by social forces and human agency
What are examples of social forces?
Social forces include legal regulations (government), social norms (cultural values) & market pressures (corporate interests).
What is human agency?
Human agency focuses on individuals' ability to influence the development and application of media technologies.
the medium is the message, not the content
Key ideas of Potter Chapter 14, 13, and Appendix
1. Media effects are constantly occurring
2. Media work with other factors
3. You can control the effects process
4. When we take a four-dimensional
perspective (timing, type, valence, intentionality), we can better appreciate the broad range of media effects.
Four-dimensional perspective of media effects
Two types of timing
7 types of media effects
Immediate: contrast effect and inoculation
Long-term: cultivation and socialization
Long-term: shifting brain activity
Immediate: imitation, activation
Long-term: displacement, internet addiction disorder
What are the three areas Macro-level effects affect
1. on society
2. on politics
3. on religions
The media displays facts, things you would not think to search or understand that you are made aware of. Generalizations and Continuous partial Attention fall into this category.
Long-term: learning agendas, generalization, continuous partial attention
Long term effects of this domain include desensitization to the media violence or media with sexual content, they no longer impact you in a positive way, repetition causes loss of ability to respond.
A theory that proposes that moral reasoning is distinct from other forms of social knowledge, such as societal and psychological knowledge.
the principles and philosophy concerned with nature and the appreciation of beauty, it refers to the ability to perceive through the senses, be sensitive to, and appreciate the beauty in nature and creations in the arts.
4 Media Literacy Perspectives
1. Media are not bad
2. Many positive effects
3. Learn to see things differently
4. Make changes in our mental code
A theory that examines the long-term effects of television. "The more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television."
Exposure to a specific media message (typically by the party that would be in question) so that it is less surprising or shocking if another party were to bring it up at a later time.
A theory that states people seek out and remember information that provides cognitive support for their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs.
The use of media to simulate or copy another action, feeling, or emotion.
The use of media and communication technologies for social and political movements.
The process of learning to behave in ways that are acceptable in a society.
When media makes violence and dominance normal, it causes people to be ______________ to the issues of the situation.
The unconscious transfer of an intense emotion from its original object to another one.
A lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
Immediate Media Effects
An attitudinal effect that immediately causes someone to desire to do what the media suggests. Ex. Coca cola commercial that makes you want a coke right then.
Long-Term Media Effects
An attitudinal effect of media that occurs after prolonged and repeated exposure.
What are the three theories about Media Audiences?
1. Bullet theory
2. Uses and gratifications
3. Reception Analysis
Bullet/Hypodermic needle Theory
Theory that media perception is not active and all messages are directly accepted and believed.
Uses & Gratification Model
Theory that media perception is an active process and we make choices and have a voice in the messages we consume.
4 areas Uses and Gratifications affects
2. Personal identity
3. Integration and social interaction
Uses and gratifications and information
-Finding out about society and the world
-Seeking advice on practical matters
-Satisfying curiosity and interest
Uses and gratifications and Personal Identity
-Finding reinforcement for personal values
-Finding models for behavior
-Identifying with valued others
-Gaining insight into oneself
Uses and gratifications and Integration and Social Interaction
-Gaining insight into circumstances of others
-Gaining a sense of belonging
-Finding a basis for conversation
-Helping to carry out social roles
Uses and gratifications and entertainment
-Diversion from problems
-Cultural and aesthetic pleasure/enjoyment
Reception researchers are interested in social meanings, not in individual interpretations of media texts. The audience produces meaning.
Key ideas of "Gendered Media" by Julia T. Wood
-Media under-represent women and minorities. Women and
minorities enjoy less visibility, voice or power, relative to their representation in the broader society.
-Media often misrepresent women and
minorities and portray them in stereotypical ways.
a misleading or untrue
representation of an individual or a group
a shorthand used to classify
individuals and groups. Often simplified,
overgeneralized and biased
a shorthand used to classify individuals and groups; often simplifies, over generalized and biased.
Amos 'n' Andy
the first show representing black people recognized them in a derogatory way that is an over generalization of the population.
Factors that influence changing Images of blacks in Media
-civil rights movement
-black professionals in economic and creative control (African Americans coming to power in media ex. Oprah Winfrey)
-growing youth market for black cultural products
The Emmett Till Generation
Video clip about the unrepresented racism in media that prevented northern Americans from the truth about the brutality of the racism in the south.
the patriarchal stereotype of men and women.
-men: active, adventurous, powerful, sexually aggressive and largely uninvolved in human relationships.
-women: young, thin, beautiful, passive, dependent, and often incompetent (except housework)
What is the melting pot?
Idea that people of different ethnicities and races should become "American," a sort of homogenization
What is conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things.
The concept you develop about yourself that evolves over the course of your life. This may include aspects of your life that you have no control over, such as where you grew up or the color of your skin, as well as choices you make in life, such as how you spend your time and what you believe, along with what and how you use media.
The idea that media has made women out to be concrete objects and turned them into objects instead of a person.
The idea that media has partitioning or divided up women's bodies into parts instead of the use of a person as a whole.
Integration & Social Interaction
whatever people are willing to spend their money and spare time viewing rather than participating in
The idea that men and women have strict outlined roles in society and the two do not overlap.
Third Person Effect
The belief that media has an impact on everyone except oneself.
Factors The Influence Media Effects
Baseline & Fluctuation
Baseline Factors that influence Media Effects
-Media Exposure Habits
Fluctuation Factors that influence Media Effects
-Content of the Messages
-Context of Portrayals
-Cognitive Complexity of Content
-Degree of Identification
Continuous partial Attention
Within the cognitive domain, the idea that someone is constantly multitasking and jumping from one media source to another.
Jean Kilbourne's main objection when getting audience to take advertising seriously.
The Third Person Effect, a belief that others are impacted by media but you are not.
The dominant message women receive from advertising according to Kilbourne.
Advertising and violence against women
Women are turned into objects, dehumanized and body hacked into parts. Depicts violence in relationships as desirable and that women should be submissive sexual objects.
Media provides an ____________________ of women and minorities.
a misleading or untrue representation of a group or individual.
Spike Lee's "Do the Right Thing"
Challenges stereotypes in some ways, but holds on to other stereotypes. Men are strong and dominant.
Patriarchal Stereotype of Men & Boys
active, adventurous, powerful, sexually aggressive and largely un-involved in human relationships.
Patriarchal Stereotype of Women & Girls
young, thin, beautiful, passive, dependent, and often incompetent (with the exception of housework)
A term in media that describes making normal and healthy body sizes and types seem unhealthy in order to encourage you to purchase a product.
CBS News Story on Eating Disorders
Video clip discussing eating disorders and children growing up in a world that makes them feel inadequate if they are over weight and that they need to go on diets at younger and younger ages.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
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