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a mixture of sand, silt, and clay particle that exhibit the properties of those separates in about equal proportions
many soil particles held in a single mass or cluster such as a clod, crumb, block or prism
-flocculation: the mutual attracting among clay and organic molecules
-shrink and swell
crumb- very porous
platey- caused by compaction
columnar- round tops
prismatic- flat, angular tops
Bulk Density (Db)
oven dry soil mass (g)/
total soil volume (cm3)
*Root penetration decreases with increasing Db and soil strength
Particle Density (Dp)
mass per unit volume of soil particles
Dp= oven dry soil mass (g)/
volume of solids (cm3)
avg.= 2.65 g/cm3
Water Flow in Soils
-macropores and micropores
-VERY IMPORTANT FOR CLAYEY SOILS
-granular structure -> water flow fast
-prismatic structure -> water flow slow
-increase compaction -> decrease water flow
Depth to Water Table
-causes landslides because water will build up
-steeper slope= less water moving into and
through soil profile
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