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Chapter 9
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Terms in this set (75)
Algorithm
A mathematical process or formula for performing some kind of math function.
Asymmetric Key Cryptography
A cryptographic technique that uses two mathematically related keys—one key to encrypt data and another key to decrypt data.
Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE)
A type of public-key encryption in which the secret key of a user and the ciphertext are dependent upon attributes of the sender such as country or state.
Authentication
The process of proving you are the person or entity you claim to be.
Block Cipher
Cryptographic cipher that encrypts an entire block of input at a time.
Caesar Cipher
It shifts each letter in the English alphabet a fixed number of positions, with Z wrapping back to A
Certificate Authority (CA)
A trusted entity that stores and distributes verified digital certificates such as Verisign or Computer Associates.
Checksum
The output of a one-way algorithm. A mathematically derived numerical representation of some input.
Cipher
An algorithm to encrypt or decrypt information.
Ciphertext
Encrypted data, the opposite of cleartext. Data sent as ciphertext is not intelligible or decipherable.
Cleartext
Unencrypted data, the opposite of ciphertext. Data sent as cleartext is readable and understandable.
Confidentiality
The requirement to keep information private or secret.
Connection Encryption
Assurance that communication is secured from end to end, for example between an HTTPS website and secure browser connection with a desktop or mobile device.
Cryptanalysis
The process of breaking codes without knowledge of the key.
Cryptography
The study or practice of hiding information.
Cryptogram
A small encrypted message.
Cryptosystem
The algorithms or ciphers used to encrypt and decrypt data.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Encryption cipher that is a product cipher with a 56-bit key consisting of 16 iterations of substitution and transformation. First published as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) in 1977.
Decryption
The act of unscrambling ciphertext into plaintext.
Differential Cryptanalysis
The act of looking for patterns in vast amounts of ciphertext.
Diffie-Hellman Algorithm
An algorithm in which a sender and receiver use asymmetric encryption to securely exchange symmetric keys.
Diffie-Hellman in Ephemeral Mode (DHE)
Asymmetric cryptographic key exchange algorithm that uses modular arithmetic to generate keys.
Digital Signature
An object that uses asymmetric encryption to bind a message or data to a specific entity.
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
The NIST standard for digital signatures. First published as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) in 1993.
Digitized Signature
An image of an electronically reproduced signature.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
A public key cryptographic algorithm based on the structure of elliptic curves.
Elliptic Curve DHE (ECDHE)
An asymmetric cryptographic key exchange algorithm that uses algebraic curves to generate keys.
Encryption
The act of transforming cleartext data into undecipherable ciphertext.
Hash
An algorithm that converts a large amount of data to a single (long) number. Once mathematically hashed, the hash value can be used to verify the integrity of that data.
Hashing Function
A one-way function that takes input and produces output that is hard to replicate and extremely difficult to reverse.
Identity-Based Encryption (IBE)
Uses the sender's identity to derive a key.
In-band Key Exchange
The use of one's own IP data network to exchange keys.
Integrity
The validity of information or data. Data with high integrity has not been altered or modified.
Key
A secret value a cipher uses to encrypt or decrypt information.
Key Directory
A trusted repository of all public keys.
Key Distribution
The process of securely transporting an encryption key from the key generator to the key user, without disclosing the key to any unauthorized user.
Key Escrow
An external key storage method that allows some authorized third party access to a key under certain circumstances.
Key Management
The process of managing and maintaining encryption keys.
Key Revocation
A situation in which someone is no longer trusted or allowed to use a cryptosystem. In a symmetric key system, where everyone shares the same key, compromising one copy of the key comprises all copies.
Key-Encrypting Key
An encryption key used to encrypt other keys before transmitting them.
Key Stretching
A function that takes a key (generally a weak key) as input and generates an enhanced key that can withstand a more determined attack.
Keyspace
The set of all possible encryption keys.
Keyword Mixed Alphabet Cipher
An encryption cipher that uses a cipher alphabet that consists of a keyword, less duplicates, followed by the remaining letters of the alphabet.
Message Digest Algorithm (MD5)
A cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value.
Nonrepudation
Prevents a party from denying a previous statement or action.
One-time Pad Cipher
1 The only unbreakable cryptographic cipher
One-way algorithm
An encryption algorithm that has no corresponding decryption algorithm.
Open Cipher
Ciphers for which source code is readily available, which makes it possible for experts around the world to examine the ciphers for weaknesses.
Out-of-band Key Exchange
A different communication channel through which you can exchange keys from the one you use for data.
Perfect Forward Secrecy
An approach in which each communication session setup process is unique. If an attacker compromises a current session's keys, it doesn't put any previous session keys at risk.
Plaintext
Unencrypted information.
Private (Symmetric) Key
Encryption cipher that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt information.
Product Cipher
Encryption cipher that is a combination of multiple ciphers. Each could be transposition or substitution.
Public (Asymmetric) Key
An encryption key that can be shared and does not need to be kept private.
Public Key Cryptography
Cryptographic algorithm that uses two mathematically related keys—one key to encrypt data and another key to decrypt data.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
A general approach to handling encryption keys using trusted entities and digital certificates; the hardware, software, policies, and procedures to manage all aspects of digital certificates.
Quantum Cryptography
Cryptography that uses quantum mechanics to perform cryptographic tasks like encrypting and decrypting data or providing secure key exchange.
Revocation
Stopping authorization for access to data.
Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA)
A digital signature algorithm that relies on the difficulty of factoring large numbers.
Salt Value
Random characters that you can combine with an actual input key to create the encryption key.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
A set of cryptographic hash functions developed by the U.S. National Security Agency.
Secure Shell (SSH)
Commonly used protocol to set up secure login sessions to remote servers.
Security Association (SA)
The basic element of ISAKMP key management. SA contains all the information needed to do a variety of network security services.
Session Key
A unique key for each new communication session.
Simple Substitution Cipher
Instead of transforming each letter a fixed number of positions, you can increase the complexity of a substitution cipher by allowing any letter to uniquely map to any other letter.
SSL Handshake Protocol
A process that creates the first secure communications session between a client and a server.
Steganography
The art and science of writing hidden messages.
Stream Cipher
Cryptographic cipher that encrypts a single byte (or bit) at a time.
Substitution Cipher
An encryption cipher that replaces bits, characters, or blocks of information with other bits, characters, or blocks.
Symmetric Key Cryptography
A type of cryptography that cannot secure correspondence until after the two parties exchange keys.
Timestamping
Providing an exact time when a producer creates or sends information.
Transport Encryption
The process of securing communication in transit, generally done by software.
Transposition Cipher
An encryption cipher that rearranges characters or bits of data.
Vernam Cipher
The only unbreakable cryptographic cipher. Also called a one-time pad.
Vigenere Cipher
An encryption cipher that uses multiple encryptions schemes in succession. For example, you could encrypt every fifth letter with its own substitution cipher.
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