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AP Bio Chapter 11/13 (VOCABULARY)
Terms in this set (44)
A DNA sequence to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription
Proteins that assemble on a eukaryotic chromosome, allowing RNA polymerase II to perform transcription
A protein encoded by a regulatory gene that can bind to a promoter and prevent transcription of the associated gene
A transcription factor that stimulates transcription when it binds to a gene's promoter
A compound that stimulates the synthesis of a protein
Genes that are expressed only when their products are needed
Genes that are expressed all the time
A genetic unit of transcription, typically consisting of several structural genes that are transcribed together; the operon contains at least two control regions: the promoter and the operator
The region of an operon that acts as the binding site for the repressor
A gene that encodes the primary structure of a protein not involved in the regulation of gene expression
A molecule that binds to a bacterial repressor protein, altering its shape so that it binds to the operator sequence in DNA and prevents its transcription
the substrate of a metabolic pathway (the inducer) interacts with a transcription factor (the repressor), rendering the repressor incapable of binding to the operator and thus allowing transcription
a product of a metabolic pathway (the corepressor) binds to the repressor protein, which is then able to bind to the operator and block transcription
In prokaryotes, a protein that binds to RNA polymerase, allowing the complex to bind to and stimulate the transcription of a specific class of genes (e.g., those involved in sporulation)
Any of a group of ultramicroscopic particles constructed of nucleic acid and protein (and, sometimes, lipid) that require living cells in order to reproduce. ________ evolved multiple times from different cellular species.
general transcription factors
In eukaryotes, transcription factors that bind to the promoters of most protein-coding genes and are required for their expression. Distinct from transcription factors that have specific regulatory effects only at certain promoters or classes of promoters
An enzyme that catalyzes the production of DNA (cDNA), using RNA as a template; essential to the reproduction of retroviruses.
A mechanism for epigenetic gene regulation by the alteration of chromatin structure
Any one of a group of proteins forming the core of a nucleosome, the structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome
Enzymes involved in chromatin remodeling. Add acetyl groups to the tail regions of histone proteins.
In chromatin remodeling, an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from the tails of histone proteins
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups to DNA after DNA replication
An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the methyl group from cytosine, reversing DNA methylation
Diffuse, uncondensed chromatin. Contains active genes that will be transcribed into mRNA.
Densely packed, dark-staining chromatin; any genes it contains are usually not transcribed.
The form of a gene's expression is determined by parental source (i.e., whether the gene is inherited from the male or female parent)
A process for generating different mature mRNAs from a single gene by splicing together different sets of exons during RNA processing
A small, noncoding RNA molecule, typically about 21 bases long, that binds to mRNA to inhibit its translation.
A protein that blocks translation by binding to mRNAs and preventing their attachment to the ribosome. In mammals, the production of ferritin protein is regulated by a translational repressor
A small protein that is covalently linked to other cellular proteins identified for breakdown by the proteosome.
In the eukaryotic cytoplasm, a huge protein structure that binds to and digests cellular proteins that have been tagged by ubiquitin.
a single DNA molecule containing DNA sequences from two or more sources
Any of a type of enzyme that cleaves double-stranded DNA at specific sites; extensively used in recombinant DNA technology
A specific DNA base sequence that is recognized and acted on by a restriction endonuclease
A technique for separating molecules (such as DNA fragments) from one another on the basis of their electric charges and molecular weights by applying an electric field to a gel
A mechanism for transfer of genetic information in bacteria in which pure DNA from a bacterium of one genotype is taken in through the cell surface of a bacterium of a different genotype and incorporated into the chromosome of the recipient cell; insertion of recombinant DNA into a host cell
insertion of recombinant DNA into animal cells
Containing recombinant DNA incorporated into the genetic material
A gene, such as one encoding resistance to an antibiotic, that can be used to identify (select) cells that contain recombinant DNA from among a large population of untransformed cells.
A plasmid or virus that carries an inserted piece of DNA into a bacterium for cloning purposes in recombinant DNA technology
A genetic marker included in recombinant DNA to indicate the presence of the recombinant DNA in a host cell.
a DNA vector, such as a plasmid, that carries a DNA sequence for the expression of an inserted gene into mRNA and protein in a host cell
the use of genetically modified animals to produce medically useful products in their milk
the use by humans of other organisms to remove contaminants from the environment
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