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Theatre History Names
Terms in this set (15)
Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1826-1914)
Took over the Court Theatre in 1866 One of the first Directors. Was wealthy and could afford longer rehearsals then the Romantic period. Toned down individual performance and focus on the ensemble. Would tone down gestures and get actors to perform in a realistic manner. Choreographed large crowd scenes. Made effort for historical accuracy in costume and set design. Use of furniture.
Emile Zolo (1840-1902)
A French writer. a manifesto, Therese Raquin (1873). Wanted to identify a social problem, put it on stage and view it in an objective way, reveal the problem and solve it. Bring out social problems in order to cure them. Used everyday speech and flexible dialogue in accordance to the characters and their background. Studied people's behaviour (environment/hereditary predispositions). Not interested in stock characters.
Andre Antoine (1858-1943)
French actor, theatre manager, film director. Theatre Libre (1887). First Avant Garde theatre of this era because he produced plays of controversial subject matter. Actively sponsors new and upcoming playwrights. Advocated a realistic style of acting. Often employed amateur actors (cheaper and didn't have previous training). One of the first to darken the theatre, creates a fourth wall. Would place live chickens/real carcasses on stage. Aligned themselves with avant-garde painters, tried to legitimize themselves as an art form. Went bankrupt.
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
Norwegian Playwright. A Doll's House (1828) Ghosts (1881)
August Strindberg (1848-1912)
Playwright -> Miss Julie (1906). Short Story -> A Doll's House. Extremely Misogynistic. "Love between the sexes is a battle."
Nikolai Evreinov (1879-1953)
Tries to break down boundaries (Genders, stage/audience, aesthetic).The Storming of the Winter Palace (1920) Tribute performance/recreation (8000 people, 500 orchestra, 100,000 spectators)
Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874-1940)
a Russian and Soviet theatre director, actor and theatrical producer. Dom Jaun (1910). Familiar with Stanislavsky system of acting, but wanted to create a different type of theatre. All about visual aspects of the theatre experience -> Very Avant Garde and different from realism.No real separation between the set/stage/audience -> One of the first times we see an apron stage, it reaches out to the audience rather than drawing a line. He also left the lights on in the auditorium.Used Circus, Masquerade, Carnival atmosphere, contemporary dance, gymnastics -> Physical forms of expression.
Stage designer and painter who worked with Meyerhold. The Maganimous Cuckhold (1922) -> Set in a flower mill, not about narrative or character. Creating a unity between the set and the bodies, not worried about creating a realistic set.
Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
A Belgian playwright, poet. Created a new style of dialogue, extremely lean and spare, where what is suggested is more important than what is said. Didn't believe actors could portray the symbolic figures of his plays (too individual) and wanted to use marionettes.
Theatre de L'Oeuvre (1893-1900)
Alfred Jarry -> Ubu Roi premiered in 1896. A home for the artists of the Symbolist Movement at the end of the nineteenth century. Produced Maeterlinck, Oscar Wilde, and Strindberg.
Paul Fort (1872-1960)
A French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. At the age of 18, reacting against the Naturalistic theatre, Fort founded the Théâtre d'Art (1890-93).
Adolphe Appia (1862-1928)
Designer -> tried to construct three-dimension scenery that was both rhythmic and highly symbolical in order to catch the essence of the play. Light was the dominating principal in a production to achieve unity. Got rid of footlights and started using lights from above -> Spotlights, diffused light
Inspired by rhythm and music.
"An object is three dimensional to our eyes only because of the light the strikes it."
Edward Gordon Craig (1872-1966)
Often tried to claim others were copying his work. Also wanted to get rid of footlights and light the stage from above. Took a primarily visual approach to theatre, separate from text and actors. Thought actors should be abolished and replaced by super sized marionettes. -> Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet.
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Founder of the Moscow Art Theatre
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