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C 17,18,19 Jennings
Terms in this set (198)
Where is Central Asia located?
from the Black Sea to China
What is this land marked by?
highlands, a dry climate, and a vast expanse of deserts
All of the countries in the sub-region are land-locked except for one. Which country is it?
What does it mean for a country to be land-locked?
it has no access to the sea
What are the two sections Central Asia is divided into?
the western and eastern sections
What is the western section called?
Where is the western section?
between the Black and Caspian Seas
Which countries make up the western section?
Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Where did the west side get its name?
the Caucus Mountains, which actually consists of two mountain ranges
What is the name of the northern mountain range of the Caucus Mountains, and what is special about it?
the Great Caucus; it includes Mount Shikhara in Georgia
How tall is Mount Shikhara?
17,063 feet tall
What is the name of the mountain range in the south?
the lesser Caucus Mountains
Where does Central Asia's second section lie?
from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea to China and Pakistan
What does this section include?
the "Seven Stans"
What are the "Seven Stans"?
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
What does the suffix "stan" mean?
it is an ancient Persian word that means "land of" or "place of"
What mountain range is in the eastern section?
the Hindu Kush of Afghanistan
What is one mountain in Hindu Kush, and how tall is it?
Mount Nowshak; 24,000 feet tall
The eastern section is also home to a valley. What is it called?
How big is Fergana Valley?
the size of Massachusetts
Why is Fergana Valley covered in farms?
the water and fertile soil
What does the eastern section also have?
dune-covered kums, or deserts
What desert covers most of Turkmenistan?
the Kara-Kum, or black sand, Desert
Which desert covers half of Uzbekistan?
the Kyzyl-Kum, or red sand, Desert
How big are the Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum deserts?
about the size of Arizona
Central Asia is home to the largest inland sea in the world. Which sea is it?
the Caspian Sea
What other sea is in Central Asia, and what is happening to it?
the Aral Sea; it is drying up faster than it can be replenished due to feeder rivers being diverted to irrigate farmland
The Black Sea is also located in this area. What does it give access to?
the Mediterranean Sea through the Dardanelles
What is the main lake in the sub region?
What river is the main lake in Central Asia fed by? Any why is the salinity level rising?
...The ILe river. The damning of the river.
What are the two main rivers in the sub region?
the Anu Dar'ya and the Sry Dar'ya
What feeds these two rivers?
What sea do both rivers spill into?
the Aral Sea
What connects the Amu Dar'ya to the Caspian Sea?
Turkmenistan's Karakum canal
What is a big factor in climate for Central Asia?
Why does Central Asia have a dry climate?
the countries are far from the oceans
What kind of vegetation does Central Asia have?
sparse scrub vegetation
What kind of vegetation do the Kara-Kum and Kyzyl Deserts have?
vegetation is sparse, but there are scrub grasses growing in certain areas
Why do most people in this region practice pastoralism?
most vegetation is scrub grasses
What is pastoralism?
the raising of livestock
What kind of livestock is adapted to the area?
sheep, horses, camels, and cattle
What kinds of animals do nomadic tribes adapt? Why?
sheep and goats because they are adapt to constant movement
Where does farming in Central Asia typically occur?
around oases or where underground water naturally comes to surface, and areas where the farm land is irrigated
What kind of vegetation does Central Asia experience? Where does this vegetation typically grow?
steppe vegetation; dry areas
Why can't crops grow in great quantities?
there is no flow of water
What are the major crops grown in these areas for food?
cereals, which are barley, oats, and wheats
What is another crop grown?
Compared to the climate of inland Central Asia, what are the climates along the coasts of the Caspian and Black Seas like?
they are very different
How much rain do the shores of the Black Sea in Western Georgia receive annually?
What can coastal areas around the Caspian and Black Seas farm?
fruits and vegetables
What are some commercially farmed products of this area?
tea and citrus fruits
What is also important in Central Asia?
oil and natural gas
Where are the largest natural gas and oil deposits found, and what countries do they benefit?
under the Caspian Sea; Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan
Kazaghstan also has abundant mineral resources. What are these resources?
uranium, copper, zinc, and iron ore
How long ago were the kingdoms of the countries Georgia and Armenia formed?
over 2,000 years ago
When were Georgia and Armenia Christianized under the Roman Empire? What is special about this?
the 4th century BCE; they were the first two countries in the world to declare Christianity as the national religion
Why was the Silk Road important in this area?
most people of the sub region are nomadic
When did the Silk Road's importance begin?
around 100 BCE
Where does the Silk Road establish a trade route?
between Europe and China
The Silk Road makes the countries of Central Asia rich, but what else does it do?
it makes them vulnerable to invasion
Around the 7th through 9th centuries, what areas did the Islamic Arabs conquer?
Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
When did Genghis Kahn and his Mongol forces conquer all of Central Asia?
Despite thousands of deaths, what did the Mongol period achieve?
revived trade and prosperity
The Russian Empire eventually took control of most of Central Asia until the 1800's. Why couldn't they take over all of Central Asia?
the British established themselves in India and prevented the Russians from moving to Afghanistan
After the Communist Revolution in 1917, all of Central Asia became part of the Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR) except for one country. What is this country?
When did all eight countries of Central Asia gain their independence with the fall of the Soviet Union?
Why have the people of these countries been struggling ever since independence?
the leaders of these countries promised a democratic system, but usually only delivered an authoritarian government
How long ago did the African and Arabian tectonic plates form a single plate?
20-30 million years ago
How was the Red Sea formed?
the two tectonic plates split due to tectonic forces, creating a rift valley that filled with water, creating the Red Sea
What did the Red Sea create land-form wise?
the Arabian Peninsula; the Red Sea is the western and southwestern boundaries of it
What is a peninsula?
an area of land almost entirely surrounded by water
Which bodies of water form the natural boundaries on the southern and eastern parts of the peninsula?
the Gulf of Aden, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf
What is on the west of the Arabian Peninsula that runs north to south along the Red Sea?
the Arabian Shield
What is a shield?
a landform composed of hard, ancient rocks, which form a steep escarpment that looms above the narrow strip of coastal plains; extinct volcanoes cover the surface of the shield
What is located east of the Arabian Shield?
What is the Najd?
the central plateau of the Arabian Peninsula
How is the Najd unlike other plateaus?
it doesn't end in steep cliffs like other plateaus do; it slopes gently from west to east and ends at sea level on the Persian Gulf coast
What is the climate of the Arabian Peninsula?
arid, or very dry climate
How much of the peninsula is unsuitable for human settlement?
1.2 million square miles
What are the two distinct features of the Arabian Desert?
the northern desert, or An Nafud, and the Rub al-Khali in the south
What are the dunes in the
An Nafud like?
they are reddish, crescent-shaped dunes
What are dunes?
ridges of sand formed by the wind
How big is the An Nafud?
25,000 square miles
What is the Rub al-Khali also known as?
the "empty quarter"
How big is the Rub al-Khali?
ten times the area of the Northern Desert; the world's largest uninterrupted area of sand
What are the four features that make up the Arabian Peninsula?
the central plateau (Najd) the Northern Desert (An Nafud) the empty quarter (Rub al-Khali) and the Arabian Sheild
What are the five bodies of water that surround the Arabian Peninsula on three sides?
the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf
Why is the Red Sea a vital waterway for the economies of the Middle East?
it is the passage to the Suez Canal, which connects the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, giving direct access to the markets of Western Europe
The Persian Gulf serves the international shipping needs of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates. What are these countries producing that is shipped?
The Arabian Peninsula is essentially a large desert with an extremely dry climate. What is the average rainfall there?
less than four inches per year
Surprisingly, what do few areas, such as Rub al-Khali have that most deserts typically do not possess?
few forms of animal or plant life
How is the interior of the Peninsula vastly different from the coastal areas?
the interior is extremely dry while the coastal areas can experience extreme humidity from dew and fog
What brings heavy rains to this area in the summer?
the seasonal Monsoon winds
What is a significant factor in the Climate of the Arabian Peninsula?
The heat of the desert can create hot, suffocating winds. What are these winds called?
How long do Simooms last, and how do they affect plant and animal life?
they last about 20 minutes; they destroy plant and animal life in the area it is blowing
What does the word "simoom" mean in Arabic?
What does the word "shamal" mean in Arabic?
What are Shamals?
wind that blows from the north or northwest, carrying millions of tons of sand and silt into the Rub al-Khali
The Red Sea is an aquatic biome made of coral reefs. How many different types of fish and plants make up this biome?
1,200 different species
What makes Red Sea coral reefs special?
they can endure high levels of heat and salinity, which coral cannot survive
What percent of the world's proven oil reserves are under Arabian Deserts?
When was oil first discovered in Saudi Arabia? When did the expansion of the oil industry occur?
1938; after WWII
Of the seven countries on the Peninsula, which country does not have significant oil reserves?
What are some other resources of the peninsula?
fish, pearls, slat, and gypsum produce from saline flats
What are some mineral resources?
iron ore, gold, copper, limestone, and some marble
By far, what is the most important resource on the Peninsula?
Why is freshwater such a valuable resource?
countries are quickly depleting the aquifers beneath the deserts, and they cannot be replenished at the rate they are being used
What do people of the Arabian Peninsula largely identify as?
Arab and Muslim
What are sheikdoms?
specific areas of the region controlled by individual tribes; some were sedentary, while others were nomadic
Which tribe occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, and is the dominant ethnic group in Saudi Arabia?
Who controls the Bedouin tribes?
What was wrong with the tribes being controlled by powerful families?
they were very vulnerable to foreign invasion
Who were the first to invade?
What did the Greeks establish, and where did they establish it?
a trade center in modern day Kuwait
Who established themselves in the area next, and for how long?
the Ottoman Empire, for several hundred years
Today, which countries are absolute monarchies?
Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Qatar
What kind of government does the United Arab Emirates have?
a federation of emirates formed from smaller states that are headed by emirs, or Arab leaders
How do most of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula make most of their citizens wealthy?
they share the oil wealth of their industry with their citizens
What was created because of a large need for foreign workers?
the laws of migration each country has that governs the employment of foreign workers within different countries
What is bad about the laws of migration?
they allow long hours and crowded housing conditions, which isn't good for workers
What are two of the most important cities in the Arabian Peninsula?
Medina and Mecca
What is special about Mecca?
it is the holiest city in Islam; millions of Muslim pilgrims make a pilgrimage called the Hajj each year to the Great Mosque
What is special about Medina?
it is the site of the tomb of the prophet Mohammed
How was Islam broken into two faction?
after Mohammed's death, arguments arose over who would succeed him; as a result, Islam broke into two branches
What are the two branches of Islam?
Sunni and Shia, or Shiite
What is Ibadhism?
a conservative sect which broke off from the other two branches
Where did the Shariah law come from?
the Quran and the teachings of Mohammed
What does this law govern?
every aspect of a Muslims' life
Where is the sub region of the Middle East located? (not specific)
a part of the earth where two tectonic plates meet
What has the movement of the two plates in the sub region created?
the mountainous terrain of the northeast part of the Middle East
There is a fault where these two tectonic plates meet. What is it called, and how far does it extend?
it is called the North Anatolian Fault, and extends 750 miles
What two mountain ranges are in Turkey?
the Pontic Mountain Range and the Taurus Mountain Range
How high is the highest point in the Pontic Range?
12,900 feet tall
What lies between the Pontic and Taurus Mountain Ranges?
the Anatolian Plateau
What is another name for the Anatolian Plateau?
How tall is the Anatolian Plateau?
about 2,000-5,000 feet above sea level
Where is Mount Ararat located?
to the east of the Pontic Range and on the border of Turkey and Iran
How tall is Mount Ararat?
Which two mountain ranges are in Iran?
Elburz and Zagros
What is the tallest mountain in these mountain ranges?
Mount Damavand (it's also volcanic)
How tall is Mount Damavand?
18,934 feet tall; it is also the tallest mountain in Iran
Which peninsula is the bridge between the western and eastern world?
the Anatolian Peninsula
What is the Anatolian Peninsula's northern border? What is its western and eastern border?
norther: Black Sea
eastern and western: Mediterranean Sea
Culturally, which country is the bridge between the eastern and western worlds?
A valley between two rivers has been the cradle of civilization. What are these two rivers?
the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
What is this valley known as?
What does Mesopotamia mean?
land between two rivers
How long is the Euphrates River?
2,235 miles long
Where does the Euphrates River flow?
it starts in Turkey, flows through Syria and Iraq, and ends in the Persian Gulf
How long is the Tigris River?
1,180 miles long
Where does the Tigris River flow?
it starts in Turkey, runs through Iraq, and ends in the Persian Gulf
What are the Dardanelles?
straights that link the Black Sea to the Mediterranean; militarily, they are the most important strategically located water ways
What is the narrow point that is the passage into and out of the Black Sea called?
How big is the Black Sea?
180,000 square miles
What do the Dardanelles allow Russia to access?
the Mediterranean Sea; this is the only way Russia can get to it
What influences the climate of the Northeastern part of the Middle East? (2)
mountain ranges and proximity to major bodies of water
What kind of climate does Turkey's coast have?
Mediterranean (warm dry summers and cool rainy winters)
What area also has a Mediterranean climate?
the northern part of Iran along the Caspian Sea
What kind of climate does Turkey's interior have?
a semi-arid steppe climate with dry mild temperatures
What is the main vegetation in Turkey's interior, and what does it support?
grasslands; pastoralism or the raising of livestock
Where is pastoralism common?
Turkey and Iran
What do the mountains of the sub region block from coming inland (they create a barrier that prevents it from coming inland)?
Because of this, what kind of climate dominates the interior? What is caused by this?
arid or semi-arid; deserts cover western and southern Iraq as well as eastern and southern Iran
What dominates the economy of the Middle East?
What transports the fossil fuels (and is also just as important as the fossil fuels)?
Which two countries are among the world's leaders in production of oil and natural gas?
Iraq and Iran
What else does Iraq have vast reserves of?
sulfur and phosphates
What are Iran's other natural resources?
chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, and sulfur
What are Turkey's natural resources?
hydroelectric power, coal, iron ore, copper, mercury, and gold; not oil
What is an important mode of transportation for fossil fuels?
Where do pipelines have to travel to reach their destination, and what can they cause?
they sometimes have to travel through multiple countries; they can cause revenue or conflict
When was oil discovered in this region?
When was the first commercial oil well operating in Iran?
When did Iran and Iraq join OPEC?
What is OPEC?
the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
What does OPEC do?
regulate oil production and, once the demand for oil grew worldwide, assumed power over global oil prices
Besides oil, what else does Iran export?
fruits and nuts, such as figs and pistachios
Which civilizations in history has this area been home to?
the Sumerian, Phoenician, Persian, and Ottoman Empires
The Tigris and Euphrates formed a natural boundary around an area called Mesopotamia. What is special about Mesopotamia?
it is one of the first culture hearths
What is a culture hearth?
an area from which rich culture develops and then spreads to other places
What supported the development of agriculture and allowed the early humans to form permanent villages in Mesopotamia?
the rich alluvial soil in the River's valleys
Which civilization developed around 5,000 years ago that Mesopotamia was home to?
the Sumerian civilization
The Sumerians were able to grow crops year-round. Why were they able to do this?
they used canals for irrigation
The Sumerians also developed a system of writing to keep records, while also creating a system of mathematics and a code of law. What is this system of writing called?
In 500 BCE, an empire arose in Eastern Mesopotamia around the Zagros Mountain Range in modern day Iraq. What empire was this?
the Persian Empire
What did the Persians conquer?
modern day Turkey and Iraq
What was the Persians' greatest engineering achievement?
the creation of qanats, or underground canals which reduced the evaporation of water as it flowed from the mountains to farmlands
What is the ethnic group and religion of most people in the sub region?
most people are Muslim, and their religion is Islam
What role has religion played in the culture of the sub region?
a significant one
What are some other major ethnic groups?
Turks, Iranians, Arabs, and Kurds
Why have many people occupied the sub region over the last 8,000 years, in terms of geography?
the bridge from east to west
What does the name Iran mean?
land of Aryans
Where did the name Iran come from?
the ancient Indo-European people who settled in Iran
Who are the Kurds?
a people without a country
What would the Kurds name their country if they had one?
What is the religion and language of most Kurds?
language: Kurdish, which is related to Farsi
What is Farsi?
the dominant language of the sub region