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578 terms

Snyder AP English 1st Semester Final

This should have everything Snyder could have on the final. 578 words, some are repeated. Good luck!
STUDY
PLAY
exodus
a departure, usually of large numbers of people
exotic
foreign; charmingly unfamiliar or strikingly unusualy
expedient
(adj) advantageous to one's interests
(n) an emergency course of action; a means to an end
exploit
(v) to use to the greatest possible advantage, offen selfishly
(n) a brilliant or heroic deed
expound
to explain in detail
fabricate
a. to assemble or construct
b. to make up with the intention of deceiving
facetious
not meant seriously; playful or humorous
facsimile
(n) an exact copy
(adj) reproduced exactly
fallacy
a. faulty reasoning; an error in logic
b. a false or mistaken notion
fathom
(n) a unit of length roughly equal to six feet and used primarily in teh measurement of marine depths
(v) to get to the bottom of; to understand
fatuous
unconsciously foolish, stupid, or absurd
feasible
possible; both doable and workable
feign
to pretend or give a false appearance of
felicitous
agreeably suited to the purpose or occasion; aptly or gracefully expressed
fetish
a. an object belied among primitive peoples ot have magical powers
b. an object of unreasonably excessive attention or reverence
fiasco
a complete and ridiculous failure
fickle
likely to change for no apparent reason; inconstant
filch
to steal slyly; especially small things
finesse
(n) skill, delicacy, or sublety in doing something or handling a situation
(v) to accomplish by subtle or skillful maneuvering
flagrant
extremely and deliberately conspicuous; glaring
flaunt
to show off in a conspicuous or offensive way
flout
to treat openly with scorn or contempt
fluctuate
to change continually from one position to another
foible
a minor, often amusing, fault or weakness in character
forestall
to secure an advantage or prevent a loss by pervious action
formidable
a. arousing fear or admiration because of the unusual size or superiority of the thing involved
b. difficult to do because of the size of the job involved
fortuitous
occurring by chance or accident
frugal
a. thrifty or econonomical in the use of money
b. involving little expense; meager
fulsome
excessive and, for that reason, offensive to good taste and obviously insincere
futile
incapable of producing the desired result; unsuccessful or ineffective
gape
to stare open-mouthed in amazement; to open wide
garble
to distort in such a way as to make unintelligible
gloat
to regard with excessive or malicious satisfaction
goad
(n) a long pointed stick used for driving animals; anything that spurs a person on
(v) to drive or urge on
graphic
a. relating to a drawn or pictorial representation; visual
b. giving a clear and effective picture; vivid
gratuitous
a. freely given; done without recompense
b. uncalled-for; unjustified
gregarious
a. tending to form or move in a herd or other group; social
b. enjoying the company of others
grimace
(n) a twisted facial expression indicating pain, disgust, or disapproval
(v) to contort the features of the face in order to indicate pain, digust, or disapproval
grope
to feel around uncertainly for
grueling
extremely demanding and exhausting
gruesome
causing great shock, horror, and repugnance
gullible
easily cheated or deceived
haggard
worn and exhausted from anxiety, disease, hunger, or fatigue
harangue
(n) a long emotional publich adress designed to arouse strong feelings or spur the audience on to action; a similar piece of writing
(v) to deliver a harangue
harbringer
(n) a forerunner
(v) to hearld the approach of
haughty
scornfully superior and aloof
heinous
grossly wicked or vile
ignominy
dishonor or disgrace usually resulting from some sort of shameful conduct
illicit
unlawful, illegal
immaculate
entierly free of stain, blemish, fault, or error; spotless
immunity
exemption frmo something, expecially a disease
immutable
not subject to change or modification
impasse
a deadlock or dead end
impediment
a hindrance or obstruction
impervious
incapable of being penetrated or affected
implacable
incapable of veing pacified or appeased; inflexible
implicit
a. understood, implied
b. absolute, unquestioning
impugn
to call into question; to cast doubt on
incarcerate
to put in jail or otherwise confine
incense
to make violently angry
inception
the beginning of something
indigent
impoverished; needy
ingenious
showing remarkable originality, imagination, inventiveness, or skill; clever
inherent
existing as a natural or essential part of
innovation
somethign new; a change
insitgate
to stir up or urge on
insuperable
incapable of being overcome
intervene
to come between; to involv3e oneself in
intrepid
fearless and bold
inveigh
to protest bitterly or vehemently
irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually happens
jeopardize
to endanger
jettison
to throw overboard; to discard
judicious
having or exhibiting sound judgement
justify
to show to be just, right, vaild, or free of blame
kudos
the presitge or acclain that results from some noteworthy achievement or position
lackadaisical
sorely lacking in spirit, energy, or purpose
legacy
something left to a peroson in a will; something handed down from the past
liability
a. a debt or obligation, especially of a financial nature
b. a hindrance or handicap
libel
(n) a public statement or picture that damages a person by falsely impugning his or her character, motives, or actions, or by unjustly exposing the person to public censure or ridicule
(v) to slander publicly
litigation
legal action; a lawsuit
lucid
clear and intelligible to the understanding; mentally competent
lucrative
profitable
lurk
to sneak; to lie hidden or in wait
lush
a. luxuriant, plentiful; luxurious, opulent
b. overelaborate or overripe
malapropism
an unconscious and usually ludicrous misuse of a word
malice
a desire to cause harm or suffering; deep-seated ill will
mammoth
(n) an extinct form of elephant; a giant or colossus
(adj) gigantic
mandatory
required, obligatory
medium
the means by which some goal is achieved or the person through whom it is realized
mercenary
(n) a hireling, especially a hired professional soldier
(adj) motivated solely by a desire for material gain
moot
(adj) debatable and therefore unresolved
(v) to bring up for discussion
morass
a swamp or bog; a confused or degrading situation that is difficult to get out of
motley
(n) a kind of multicolored cloth; a garment made from this cloth, especially the costume worn by a court jester or clown
(adj) multicolored cloth; diverse or varied
mundane
wordly (as opposed to spiritual); humdrum or everyday
myriad
countless, innumerable
narcissistic
dominated by an excessive love or admiration of oneself
nebulous
hazy, vague, or indistinct
negligible
too small to be significant
nepotism
unwarranted favoritism show to relatives or friends by someone in high office
nomadic
wandering, roving
nominal
a. existing in name only
b. insignificantly small
nostalgia
a longing to return to a sentimentalized past; homesickness
novice
a. a person who has just entered a religious order on a probationary basis
b. a beginner of any kind
nuance
a slight or sublte variation in meaning, expression, tone, feeling, color, or the like
obscene
offensive to accepted standards of decency; repulsive
obsequious
excessibely submissive to another person's wishes or ideas, often for purely self-interested reasons
obsession
an irrational preoccupation with an idea or feeling that usually results in severe anxiety
obsolete
no longer in use; outmoded
officious
excessively forward in offering unwanted or unnecessary help or advice; meddlesome
ominous
foreshadowing evil; menacing or threatening
opportune
sutiable, appropriate, or timely
ostensible
apparent or professed
ostracize
to banish or exclude from a group; to shun
pandemonium
general disorder, confusion, noise, and commotion
paradox
a. a seemingly self-contradictory statement that, on closer examination, proves worthy of belief
b. someone or something that is full of contradictions and inconsistenciesparaphrase
paraphrase
(v) to restate in other words or another form, often in order to clarify meaning or avoid difficulties
(n) a restatement in other words or another form
parochial
a. located in, or supported by, a parish (a type of ecclesiatical district)
b. restricted in score or range; narrow or limited
parody
(n) a comic imitation of the style, form, or content of a serious peice of work
(n) a performance that is so bad as to constitue a mockery of the thing it is intended to represent
(v) to imitate in a mocking or unworthy way
pensive
immeresed in deep, often melancholy, thought
peremptory
a. having the nature of a command in that it does not allow discussion, contradiction, or refusal
b. determined, resolute
c. offensively dictatorial
perjure
to lie deliberately while under oath to tell the truth
permeate
to spread through; to penetrate
pernicious
highly injurious or harmful
persevere
to continue steadfastly despite obsitcales or discouragment
phobia
an intense irrational fear of something; any strong aversion
plagiarism
the use of another person's writings or ideas as one's own without acknowledging their source
plaintive
sorrowful or melancholy; mournful
plethora
superabundance or excess
poignant
keenly touching or moving
precarious
dangerously insecure, unstable, or uncertain
precocious
developing unusually early
predatory
preying on, plundering, or piratical
prelude
an introductory piece of musid; anything that precedes or introduces something else
premise
(n) a statement upon which an arguement is based or from which a conclusion is drawn
(v) to state or assume as the basis for something else; to offer in advance as an explanation of, or introduction to, something else
abjure
formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure
abrogate
revoke formally
abstemious
marked by temperance in indulgence
acumen
shrewdness shown by keen insight
antebellum
belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War
auspicious
tending to favor or bring good luck
belie
represent falsely
bellicose
having or showing a ready disposition to fight
bowderlize
to remove offensive passages of a play or novel
chicanery
the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
churlish
having a bad disposition
circumlocution
an indirect way of expressing something
cirumnavigate
to sail around the world
deciduous
(of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season
deleterious
harmful to living things
diffident
lacking self-confidence
enervate
weaken mentally or morally
enfranchise
grant freedom to
enthymeme
Logical reasoning with one premise by the overall context of a passage
epiphany
a divine manifestation
equinox
either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
euro
the basic monetary unit of most members of the European Union (introduced in 1999)
evanescent
tending to vanish like vapor
expurgate
edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate
facetious
cleverly amusing in tone
fatuous
complacently or inanely foolish
feckless
generally incompetent and ineffectual
fiduciary
a person who holds assets in trust for a beneficiary
filibuster
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
gauche
lacking social polish
gerrymander
an act of gerrymandering (dividing a voting area so as to give your own party an unfair advantage)
hegemony
the domination of one state over its allies
hemoglobin
a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color
hubris
overbearing pride or presumption
hypotenuse
the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle
impeach
charge with a crime or misdemeanor
incognito
without revealing one's identity
incontrovertible
impossible to deny or disprove
inculcate
teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions
infrastructure
the basic structure or features of a system or organization
irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
interpolate
insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby
jejune
lacking interest or significance
kinetic
characterized by motion
kowtow
bend the knees and bow in a servile manner
laissez-faire
a policy based on the idea that bovernment sould play as small a role as possible in the ecomony
loquacious
full of trivial conversation
lugubrious
excessively mournful
metamorphosis
a complete change of physical form or substance especially as by magic or witchcraft
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
moiety
one of two (approximately) equal parts
nanotechnology
the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)
nihilism
complete denial of all established authority and institutions
nomenclature
technical names or naming system in an art or scienceq
notarize
to certify legally
obsequious
attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery
oligarchy
a political system governed by a few people
omnipotent
having unlimited power
orthography
a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols
oxidize
add oxygen to or combine with oxygen
parabola
a plane curve formed by the intersection of a right circular cone and a plane parallel to an element of the curve
paradigm
a standard or typical example
parameter
any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance
pecuniary
relating to or involving money
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
plagiarize
take without referencing from someone else's writing or speech
plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
precipitous
extremely steep
quasar
a starlike object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy
quotidian
found in the ordinary course of events
recapitulate
summarize briefly
reciprocal
(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2
reparation
compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury
respiration
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
sanguine
inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life
soliloquy
a (usually long) dramatic speech intended to give the illusion of unspoken reflections
speculation
continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
subjugate
make subservient
suffragist
an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)
syllogism
deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises
supercilious
having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy
tautology
useless repetition
tectonic
pertaining to the structure or movement of the earth's crust
tempestuous
(of the elements) as if showing violent anger
totalitarian
characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
unctuous
unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech
usurp
seize and take control without authority and possibly with force
vacuous
devoid of significance or point
vehement
marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions
wrought
shaped to fit by or as if by altering the contours of a pliable mass (as by work or effort)
winnow
treat by exposure to a current of air so that waste matter is eliminated
xenophobe
person afraid of foreigners
yeoman
in former times was free and cultivated his own land
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
abstract
(n) an abbreviated synopsis of a longer work of scholarship or research
(adj) dealing with or tending to deal with a subject apart from a particular or specific instance
ad hominem
directed to or appealing to feelings or prejudices instead of to intellect or reason
adgae
a saying or proverb containing a truth based on experience and often couched in metaphorical language
allegory
a story in which a second meaning is to be read beneath the surface
alliteration
the repetition of one or more initial consonants in a group of wors or lines in a poem
allusion
a reference to a person, place, or event meant to create an effect or enhance the meaning of an idea
ambiguity
a vagueness of meaning; a conscious lack of clarity meant to evoke multiple meanings or interpretations
anachronism
a person, scene, event, or orther element that fails to correspond with the appropriate time or era
analogy
a comparison that points out similarities between two dissimilar things; a passage that points out several similarities between two unlike things is called an extended analogy
anecdote
a brief narative often used to illustrat an idea or make a point
annotation
a brief explanation, summary, or evaluation of a text or work of literature
antagonist
a character or force in a work of literature that, by opposing the protagonist, produces tension or conflict
antecedent
a word to which a pronoun refers
antithesis
a rhetorical opposition or contrast of ideas by means of a grammatical arrangement of words, clauses, or sentences
aphorsim
a short, pithy statement of generally accepted truth or sentiment
appolonian
it refers to teh most noble, godlike qualities of human nature and behavior
arch
(adj) characterized by clever or sly humor, often saucy, playful, and somewhat irreverent
archetype
an abstract or ideal conception of a type; a perfectly typical example; an original model or form
assonance
the repition of two or more vowel sounds in a group of words in prose or poetry
bard
a poet; in olden times, a performer who told heroic stories to musical accompaniment
bathos
insincere or overdone sentimentality
belle-lettres
a French term for the world of books, criticism, and literature in general
bibliography
a list of works cited or otherwise relevant to a particular subject
bombast
inflated, pretentious language
burlesque
a work of literature meant to ridicule a subject; a grotesque imitation
cacophony
grating, inharmonious sounds
canon
the works considered most important in a national literature or period; works widely read and studied
caricature
a grotesque likeness of striking qualities in person and things
carpe diem
literally, "sieze the day"' enjoy life while you can, a common theme in life and literature
circumlocution
literally, "talking around" a subject; i.e., discourse that avoids direct reference to a subject
classic
a highly regarded work of literature or other art form that has withstood the test of time
classical, classicism
deriving from the orderly qualities of ancient Greek and Roman cultures; implies formality, objectivity, simplicity, and restraint
clause
a structural element of a sentence, consisting of a grammatical subject and a predicate
climax
the high point, or turning point, of a story or play
comparison and contrast
a mode of discourse in which two or more things are compared and contrasted
conceit
a witty or ingenious thought; a diverting or highly fanciful idea, often stated in figurative language
concrete detail
a highly specif, particular, often real, actual, or tangible detail; the opposite of abstract
connotation
teh suggested or implied meaning of a word of phrase
consonance
the repetition of two or more consonant sounds in a group of words or a unit or speech or writing
critique
an analysis or assessment of a thing or situation fro the purpose of determining its nature, its limitation, adn its conformity to a set of standards
cynic
one who expects and observes nothing but the worst of human conduct
deductive reasoning
a method of reasoning by which specific definitions, conclusions, and theorems are drawn from general principles
denotation
the dictionary definitino of a word
denouement
the resolution that occurs at the end of a narrative or drama, real or imagined
descriptive detail
graphic,e xact, and accurat presentation of the characteristics of a person, place, or thing
deus ex machina
in literature, the use of an artificial device or gimmick to solve a problem
diction
the choice of words in oral and written discourse
didactic
having an instructive purpose; intending to convey information or teach a lesson, usually in a dry, pompous manner
digression
that portion of discourse that wanders or departs from the main subject or topic
disonysain
the word refers to sensual, pleasure-seeking impulses
dramatic irony
a circumstance in which teh audience or reader knows more about a situation than a character
elegy
a peom or prose selection that laments or meditates on the passing or death of someone or something of value
epigram
a concise but ingenious, witty, and thoughtful statement
euphony
pleasing, harmonious sounds
epithet
and adjective or phrase that expresses a striking quality of a person of thing
eponymous
a term for the title character of a work of literature
euphemism
a mild or less negative usage for a harsh or blunt term
exegesis
a detailed analysis or interpretation of a work of prose or poetry
espose
a piece of writing that reveals weaknesses, faults, frailites, or other shortcomings
exposition
the background and events that lead to the presentations of the main idea or purpose of an essay or other work; setting for the meaning or purpose of a piece of writing or discourse
explication
the interpretation or analysis of a text
extended metaphor
a series of comparisions between two unlike objects
fable
a short tale often with nonhuman characters from which a useful lesson may be drawn
fallacy, fallacious reasoning
an incorrect belief or supposition based on faulty data, defective evidence, or false information
fantasy
a story containing unreal, imaginary features
farce
a comdy that contains an extravagant and non-sensical disregard of seriousness, although it may have a serious, scornful purpose
figure of speech, figurative language
in contrast to literal language, impies meanings, metaphor, simile, and personification
frame
a structure that provides a premise or setting for a narrative or other discourse
genre
a term used to descrive literary forms, such as novel, play, and essay
harangue
a forceful sermon, lecture, or tirade
homily
a lecture or sermon on a religious or moral theme meant to guide human behavior
hubris
excessive pride that often affects tone
humanism
a belief that emphasizes fiath and optimism in human potential and creativity
hyperbole
overstatement; gross exaggeration for rhetorical effect
idyll
a lyric poem or passage that describes a kind of ideal life or place
image
a word or phrase representing that which can be seen, touched, tasted, smelled, or felt
indirect quotatoin
a rendering of a quotation in which acutal words are not stated but only approximated or paraphrased
inductive reasoning
a method of reasoning in which a number of specific facts or examples are used to make a generalization
inference
a conclusion or propostion arrived at by considering facts, observations, or some other specific data
invective
a direct verbal assault; a denunciation; casting blame on someone or something
irony
a mode of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated, often implying ridicule or light sarcasm; a state of affairs or events that is the reverse of what might have been expected
kenning
a device employed in Anglo-Sacxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by on of its functions or qualities
lampoon
a mocking, satirical assault on a person or situation
litotes
a form of understatements in which the negative of the contrary is used to achieve emphasis or intensity
loose sentence
a sentence that follows the customary word order of English sentences
lyrical prose
personal, reflective prose that reveals the speaker's thoughts and feelings about the subject
malapropism
a confused use of words in which the appropriate word is replaced by one with a similar sound but inappropriate
maxim
a saying or proverb expressing common wisdom or truth
melodrama
a literary from in which events are exaggerated in order to create an extreme emotional respone
metaphor
a figure of speech that compares unlike objects
metaphysical
a term describing poetry that uses elaborate conceits, expresses the complexities of love and life, and is highly intellectual.
metonymy
A figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to represent something else with which it is associated
Middle English
The language spoken in England roughly between 1150 and 1500 AD
mock epic
a parody of traditional epic form
mock solemnity
feigned or deliberately antificial seriousness, often for satirical purposes
mode
the general form, pattern, and manner of expressino of a piece of discourse
montage
a quick succession of images or impressions used to express an idea
mood
the emotional tone or prevailing atmosphere in a work of literature or other discourse. In grammar, the intent of a particular sentence
moral
a brief and often simplistic lesson that a reader may infer from a work of literature
motif
a phrase, idea, or event that through repetition serves to unify or convey a theme in an essay or other discourse
muse
(n) one of the ancient Greek goddesses presiding over the arts; the imaginary source of inspiration for an artist or writer
(v) to reflect deeply; to ponder
myth
an imaginary story that has become an accepted part of the cultural or religious tradition of a group or society
narrative
a form of verse or prose (both fiction and nonfiction) that tells a story.
naturalism
a term often used as a synonym for realis; also a view of experience that is generally characterized as bleak and pessimistic
non sequitar
a statement or idea that fails to follow logically from the one before
objective
(adj) of or relating to facts and reality, as opposed to private and personal feelings and attitudes.
ode
a lyric poem usually marked by serious, respectful, and exalted feelings toward the subject
Old English
the Anglo-Saxon language spoken from approximately 450 to 1150 AD in what is now Great Britain
omniscient narrator
a narrator with unlimited awareness, understanding, and insight of characters, setting, background, and all other elements of the story
oxymoron
a term consisting of contradictory elements juxtaposed to create a paradoxical effect
parable
a story consisting of events from which a moral or spiritual truth may be derived
paradox
a statement that seems self-contradictory but is nevertheless true
parallel structure
the structure required for expressing two or more grammatical elements of equal rank. coordinate ideas, compared and contrasted ideas, and correlative constructions call for this
parody
an imitation of a work meant to ridicule its style and subject
paraphrase
a version of text put into simpler, everyday words
pastoral
a work of literature dealing with rural life
pathetic fallacy
faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascrives human feelings to nature or nonhuman objects
pathos
the element in literature that stimulates pity or sorrow
pedantic
narrowly academic instead of broad and humane; excessively petty and meticulous
peridoic sentence
a sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end. In other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support
persona
the role or facade that a character assumes or depicts to a reader or other audience
personification
a figure of speech in which objects and animals are given human characteristics
plot
the interrelationship among the events in a story
point of view
the relation in which a narrator or speaker stands to a subject of discourse
predicate
the part of a sentence that is not the grammatical sujbect. It often says something about the subject. A noun that provides another name for the subject is called a predicate nominative
prose
any discourse that is not poetry
proverb
a short pithy statement of a general truth, one that condenses common experience into memorable form
pseudonym
a false name or alias used by writers
pulp fiction
novels written for mass consuption, often emphasizing exciting and titilalating plots
pun
a humorous play on words, using similar-sounding or identical words to suggest different meanings
realism
teh depiction of people, things, and events as they really are without idealization or exaggeration for effect
rebuttal or refutation
the part of discourse wherein opposing arguments are anticipated and answered
reiteration
repetition of an idea using different words, often for emphasis or other effect
repetition
reuse of the same words, phrases, or ideas for rhetorical effect, usually to emphasize a point
retraction
the withdrawal of a previously stated idea or opinion
rhetoric
the language of a work and its style; words, often highly emotional, used to convey or sway an audience
rhetorical mode
a general term that identifies discourse according to its chief purpose.
rhetorical question
a question to which the audience already knows the answer; a question asked merely for effect with no answer expected
rhetorical stance
language that conveys a speaker's attitude or opinion with regard to a particular subject
rhyme
the repetition of similar sounds at regular intervals, used mostly in poetry but not unheard of in prose
rhythm
the patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up speech and writting
romance
an extended narrative about improbable events and extraoridnary people in exotic places
sarcasm
a sharp, caustic attitude conveyed in words through jibes, tanuts, or other remarks; differs from irony, which is more subtle
satire
a literary style used to poke fun at, attack, or ridicule an idea, vice, or foible, often for the purpose of inducing change
sentence structure
the arrangement of parts of a sentence. May be simple, compound, or complex
sentiment
a synonym for view or feeling; also a refined and tender emotion in literature
setting
an environment that consists of time, place, historical milieu, and social, political, and even spiritual circumstances
simile
a figurative comparison using the words like or as
stream of consciousness
a style of writing in which the author tries to reproduce teh random flow of thoughts in the human mind
style
the manner in which an author uses and arranges words, shapes ideas, forms sentences, and created structure to convey ideas
stylistic devices
a general term referring to diction, syntax, tone, figurative language, and all other elements that contribute to the manner of a given piece of discourse
subject complement
the name of a grammatical unit that is comprised of predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
subjective
(adj) of or relating to privat and personal feelings and attitudes as opposed to facts and reality
subtext
the implied meaning that underlines the main meaning of an essay or other work
syllogism
a form of deductive reasoning in which given certain ideas or facts, other ideas or facts must follow
symbolism
the use of one object to evoke ideas and associations not literally part of the original object
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole or the whole signifies the part
syntax
the organization of language into meaningful structuer; every sentence has a particular pattern of words
theme
the main idea or meaning, often an abstract idea upon which an essay or other form of discourse is built
thesis
the main idea of a piece of discourse; the statement or proposition that a speaker or writer wishes to advance, illustrate, prove, or defend
tone
the author's attitude toward the subject being written about.
tragedy
a form of literature in which the hero is destroyed by some character flaw and by a set of forces that cause the hero considerable anguish
transition
a stylistic device used to create a link between ideas
trope
the generic name for a figure of speech such as image, symbol, simile, and metaphor
understatement
a restrained statement that departs from what could be said; a studies avoidance of emphasis or exaggeration, often to creat a particular effect
verbal irony
a descrepancy between the true meaning of a situation and the literal meaning of the written or spoken word
verse
a synonym for poetry, also a group of lines in a song or poem; also a single line of poetry
verisimilitude
similar to the truth; the quality of realism in a work that persuades readers that they are getting a vision of life as it is
voice
the real or assumed personality used by a writer or speaker. In grammer, refers to the use of verbs
whimsy
an object, device, or creation that is fanciful or rooted in unreality
wit
the quickness of intellect and the power and talent for saying brilliant things that surprise and delight by their unexpectedness; the power to comment subtly and pointedly on the foibles of the passing scene
allegory
the device of using character and/or story elemnts symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
alliteration
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants sounds in two or more neighboring words
allusion
a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumable commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art
ambiguity
the multople meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage
anadiplosis
the repetition of a key word, especially the last one, at the beginning of the next sentence or clause
analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or teh relationship between them
anapestic
a foot in poetry with two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable
anaphora
the rhetorical device of repeating a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences for emphasis and rhythm
anathema
a thing or person accursed or damned; a thing or person greatly detested; a formal curse or condemnation excommunicating a person from a church or damning something; any strong curse
antecedent
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
anticlimax
using a sequence of ideas that abruptly diminish in dignity or importance at the end of a sentence, generally for satirical effect
antimetabole
repeating words in reverse order for surprise and emphasis
antithesis
a contrast or opposition of thoughts, usually in two phrases, clauses, or sentences
aphorism
a terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle
apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love
archetype
the original patter, or model from which all other things of the same kind are made; a perfect example of a type or group
assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words
asyndeton
the practice of leaving out the usual conjunctions between coordinate sentence elements
atmosphere
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
attitude
the position or posture assumed in connection with an action, feeling, mood
balanced sentence
the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue of their lickness of structure, meaning, or length
bathos
an abrupt change from the lofty to the ordinary or tivial in writing or speech; anticlimax
blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
caccophony
harsh sounding, jarring sound; dissonance
caesura
a pause or break in the middle of a line of poetry
chiasmus
similar to antimetabole, but reversing the grammatical elements rather than just words for emphasis
clause
a grammatical unit containing both a subject and a verb
cliche
an overused, worn-out, hackneyed expression that used to be fresh but is no more
climax
arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of their importance, teh least focible coming first and the others rising in power until the last
colloquial/colloquialism
the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing
complex sentence
one or more principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses
compound sentence
two independent clauses joined by a coordinate conjunction
compount-complex sentence
two or more principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses
conceit
a fanciful expression, ususally in the form of an extended metaphor or suprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
connotation
the non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning
consonance
the repetition of a consonant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect
cumulative sentence
sentence that begins with the main idea and adds additional information, usually for description
dactylic
a foot in poetry with one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
denotations
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color
device
a plan
diction
related to style, refers to the writer's word choices, especially wiht regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness
didactic
from the Greek, literaly means "teaching"
dimeter
a verse written in two-foot lines
dirge
a funeral hymn; a slow, sad song, poem, or musical compostition expressing grief or mourning
elegy
a poem or song of lament and praise for the dead
ellipsis
the emission of a word or words necessary for complete grammatical construction but understood in the context.
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enjambment
in poetry, the running on of a sentence from one line or couplet to the next, with little or no pause
epanalepsis
opening and closing a sentence with the same word or phrase for surprise and emphasis
epic
a long narrative poem in a dignified style about the deeds of a hero or heroes,w ho in some way embody the cultural values of their society
epigram
a short poem with a witty or satirical point; any terse, witty, pointed statement, often antithetical
epistles
a literary letter; a formal compostion written in the form of a letter addressed to a distant person or group of people
euphemism
from the Greek for "good speech"; polite substitutes for unpleasant words or concepts
epitaph
an inscription on a tomb or gravestone in memory of the person buried there; a short compostion in prose or verse, written as a tribute to a dead person
euphony
the quality of having a pleasing sound; pleasant combination of agreeable sounds
extended parallelism
the repetition of words or grammatical elements to achieve cumulative force and rhythm
extended metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
fable
a brief story, usually with animal characters, that teaches a lesson, or moral
figurative language
a device used to produce figurative language
genre
kinds or types of literature
homily
a sermon or morally instructive lecture
hyperbole
an overstatement or exaggerated way of saying something
iambic
a foot in poetry with one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
imagery
anything in a literary work that calls up sensations of sight, taste, smell, touch, heat, pressure
inference/infer
to conclude or decide from something known or assumed; derive by reasoning
invective
a violent verbal attack; strong criticism, curses; an abusive term
irony
an implied contrast
juxtapostion
a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit
language
the entire body of words used in a test, not simply isolated bits of diction
literal/figurative
literal language employs words in their ordinary meanings. figurative language is not literally true but uses words metaphorically
litotes
understatement employed for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the ideas expressed
loose sentence
sentence that begins with the main idea and adds additional information, usually for description
lyric
a melodic poem that expresses teh obervations and feelings of a single speaker
metaphor
a comparison like a simile but usually implied and without a comparative word such as like or as
metonymy
the use of the name of one thing for that of another associated with or suggested by it
mock heroic
burlesquing or mocking, heroic manner, action, or character
monometere
a verse written in one-foot lines
mood
the atmosphere of the literary work
motif
a main theme or subject
myth
a fictional tale that explains the actions of gods or heroes or the cuses of natural phenomena
narrative
the telling of a story
natural order of a sentence
constructing a sentence so the subject comes before the predicate
novel
a fictional prose narrative, usually long enough to be published in a book by itself
onomatopeia
the use of words that sound like what they mean
oxymoron
a figure of speech in which opposite or contradictory ideas or terms are combined
parable
aa brief story, usually with human characters, that teaches a moral lesson
paradox
a statement that seems contradictory, unbelievable, or absurd but that may actually be true in fact
parallelism
(1) refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence
(2) refers to teh repeated use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar in structure and meaning
parody
a literary work that makes fun of another work, type of work, or specific author, usually by imitating and exaggerating the qualitites of its subject
pedantic
an unnecessary display of scholarship lacking in judgement or sense of proportion
pentameter
a verse written in five-foot lines
periodic sentence
sentence that postpones the main idea to the end, adding information at teh beginning to build interest or tension
personification
the treatment of an object or an abstract idea as if it were a person
point of view
the person or intelligence the writer creates to tell the story to the reader
prose
the oridinary form of written or spoken language, without rhyme or meter; speech or writing that is not poetry
prosody
the science or art of versification, including the study of metrical structure, thyme, stanza forms
pun
play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings
repetition
a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and create emphasis
rhetoric
the skill of using spoken or written communicatino effectively
rhetorical mood or forms of discourse
narrative, dexcriptive, expository, and argumentatve
rhetorical question
a question that expects no answer
rhyme scheme
a regualr pattern of rhyming words in a poem
romance
a story that presents remote or imaginative incidents rather than ordinary, commonplace experiences
sarcasm
a taunting, sneering, cutting, or caustic remark; gibe or jeer
catire
a literary work that ridicule various aspects of human behavior
semantics
the nature, structure, development and changes of the meanings of speech forms or with contextual meaning
sentence structure
how a speaker or author constructs a sentence affects what the audience understands
shift
a change of feelings by the speaker from the beginning to the end
simile
the comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words like or as
simple sentence
contains one subject and one verb
soliloquy
lines in drama in which a character reveals his thoughts to the audience, but not to the other characters, by speaking as if to himself
sonnet
a fourteen-line lyric poem focused on a single theme
split order of a sentence
divides the predicate into two parts with the subject coming in the middle
stream of consciousness
a narrative technique that presents thoughts as if they were coming directly from a character's mind
style
a group of different aspects of writing that have to do with the writer's way of saying something
syllogism
an argument or form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion drawn from them
symbol/symbolism
a thing or action that is made to mean more than itself
synecdoche
a form of a metaphor in which a part of something is used to signify the whole
synesthetic imagery
detail that moves from the stimulation of one sense to a response by another sense
syntax
sentence structure and word order
tetrameter
a verse written in four-foot lines
theme
what the author is saying about the subject
tone
the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject and the audience
tragedy
a serious play typically dealing with the problems of a central charcter, leading to an unhappy or disastrous ending brought on, as in ancient drama, by fate and a tragic flaw in this characer, or, in modern drama, usually by moral weakness, psychological maladjustment, or soical pressures
trimeter
a verse written in three-foot lines
trite
applied to an expression or idea which through repeated use or application has lost its original freshness
trochaic
a foot in poetry with one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable
understatement (meiosis)
the opposite of hyperbole. a kind of irony thta deliberately represents something as being much less than it really is
vernacular
using the native language of a country or place; commonly spoken by the people of a particular country or place
vignette
a short, delicate literary sketch
rhetoical strategies
methods of development
argument and persuasion
propounding opinions and proposals
cause and effect
asking how and why things happen
classification
sorting into kinds
definition
tracing boundaries
descroption
writing with the senses
analysis
slicing into parts
process analysis
explaining step by step
example
pointing to instances
narration
telling a story
induction
a process in logic that involves moving from a number of particular cases to a general conclusion that all instances of teh type investigated will conform to that type
inductive leap
because we cannot test every instance, we take the leap from most or some to all. we reach a generalization
tests for generalization
1. a fair number of instances must be investigated
2. instances investicated must be typical
3. negative instances must be explained. show that they are not typical and, therefore, need not be considered as significant
analogy
inductive reasoning in which we assume that if two instance are alike in a number of important points, they will be alike in the point in question
deduction
a process in logic that involes reasoning from stated premises to the formally valid conclusion; reasoning from general to the particular
syllogism
the formula of deductive reasoning
distributed middle term
in order that syllogism be valid, the word that is the subject of the sentence in the major premise must be part of the predicate in a minor premise
begging the question
assuming something to be true that really needs proof
ignoring the question
a question is set up so that argument is shifted to new ground, or an appeal is made to some emotional attitude having nothing to do with the logic of the case
equivocation
using the same term with different meaning
non-sequitur
"it does not follow"
the conclusion does not follow from the preceding arguments
faulty dilemma
the major premise presents a choice that does not exhaust the possibilites
post hoc ergo propter hoc
"after this, therefore because of that"
it attempts to prove that because a second event followed a first event, the second event it the result of the first
argumentum ad hominem
"the argument to the man"
turning from the issue to the character involved, usually as an attack
ad misericordiam
an appeal for sympathy
hypothesis contrary to fact
beginning with a premise that is not necessarily true and drawing conclusions from it
composition
arguing that a group must have the same qualities or characteristics as its members
division
arguing that an individual must have teh characteristics of the group
dicto simpliciter
an argument based on unqualified generalization
contradictory premises
the main premises contraditc each other
over-generalizing (Hasty Generalization)
too few instances are presented to reach an accurate conclusion
premise and the common ground
too few instances are presented to reach an accurate conclusion
false analogy
wrongful comparisons of dissimlar situations
ad vericundiam
an appeal to general authority
ad populum
appeal to a crowd
self-evident truths
proceeding from an unwarranted assumption to a foregone conclusion
guilt (innocence) by association
use of irrelevant connections to accuse or vindicate
either/or fallacy
requires absolutes which do not allow for intermediate cases
appeals
rational, ethical, emotional
argument
data, claim, warrant
classicism
an approach to literature and teh other arts that stresses reason, balance, clarity, ideal beauty, and orderly form in imitation of the arts of ancient Greece and Rome
romanticism
a literary and artistic movement of the nineteenth century
naturalism
a literary movement among novelists at the end of the nineteenth century and during the early days of the twentieth
transcendentalism
an American literary and philosophical movement of the nineteenth century
modernism
attempted to capture the essence of modern life in the twentieth century in both form and content of their work
postmodernism
the collection of literary movements that have developed in the decades following World War II