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BIOL 1604 Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (62)
What is the difference between taxonomy and systematics?
Systematics: evolutionary relationships based on characteristics (synapomorphies)
What is nomenclature?
the assignment of distinctive names to each species
What is a character?
Attribute or feature that indicates relatedness
What is homology and hompoplasy?
Homology: organisms that have a similar characteristic based on a common ancestor.
Homoplasy: Two organisms have a similar characteristic, but they evolved independently.
Describe a cladogram. What does it show you?
A cladogram is a diagram that shows the evolutionary history of taxa.
How do you use synapomorphies to determine evolutionary relationships?
Synapomorphy: New character(s) that have arisen in a specific group since it diverged from a common ancestor.
What is monophyletic? Are animals monophyletic?
Monophyletic groups include a single ancestral species and all of its descendants. Animals are monophyletic.
How did Whitaker describe the different Kingdoms?
Whittaker described the different kingdoms based on mode of attrition and cellularity. His 5 kingdoms are monera, protista, plantae, fungi, and animalia.
What is an endosymbiont? How was this used in a hypothesis to explain the development of a prokaryotic to eukaryotic cell?
An endosymbiont is an organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a mutualistic relationship. It is theorized that mitochondria and chloroplasts were endosymbionts for prokaryotic organisms, which then evolved into eukaryotic organisms over time.
Protozoans are not true animals - why? If they are not animals, why do we talk about them in this class?
They are not true animals because they are unicellular. We talk about them in this class because they are the precursors to animals.
What are some of the "general characteristics" of protozoans? (e.g., eukaryotic, etc.).
Eukaryotic, unicellular (some colonial), marine, freshwater, terrestrial, and symbiotic species.
What is the difference between cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia?
Cilia: many along the outside of a cell membrane. Short. Used in movement and creating feeding currents.
Flagella: one or two along the outside of a cell membrane. Long. Used for movement.
Pseudopodia: Extension of the cell.
What is a lobopodia?
Lobopodia are locomotive pseudopodia in amoebas.
What are some of the ways that protozoans obtain nutrients? What is a cytosome?
Protozoans can be autotrophic or heterotrophic, meaning they can make their own nutrients, or they can take nutrients in from other sources. A cytosome is a protozoan's "mouth."
In a very theoretical sense, what shape would you expect the largest protozoans to be?
Not a circular shape, more of a rod-ish shape to increase surface area-to-volume ratio.
In a very general sense, how do protozoans reproduce?
They can reproduce sexually or asexually, through binary fission.
What are some general characteristics of Phylum Euglenozoa?
Freshwater, 1 or 2 flagella, pellicule, mainly phytoflagellates.
What are some general characteristics of the Class Trypanosomatidea? What human disease do they cause? What is the other host?
Zooflagellates, one or two flagella, parasitic organisms. They cause African trypanosomoisis, or sleeping sickness. Other hosts include insects.
What are some general characteristics of Phylum Ciliophora?
Marine and freshwater habitats, cilia, and a distinct cytostome.
What are the two types of nuclei in Ciliophora? What does each do?
Macronucleus: controls general cell operations.
Micronucleus: reproductive function (synthesizes DNA).
What are somegeneral characteristics of Phylum Dinozoa?
Aquatic habitats, phytoflagellates, and two flagella (equatorial and longitudinal).
What are Zooxanthellae? What are red tides?
Zooxanthellae are dinoflagellates that live inside of coral in a mutualistic relationship. They capture light and convert it into energy for the coral, and the coral gives it a safe place to live. Red tides are caused by algal blooms. The algae produce harmful toxins that kill fish and other creatures in the aquatic habitat.
What are some general characteristics of Phylum Apicomplexa? What diseases does it cause? What taxa causes Coccidiosis?
Primarily marine, all endoparasitic, apical complex, no cilia or flagella.
What are some general characteristics of Amoebas? What does it mean to say that an amoeba is "naked?"
Most free living in aquatic habitats, no flagellated life stage, can be naked or shelled, heterotrophic. Naked amoebas are amoebas that lack a hard covering.
Which amoebas are pathogens of humans?
Entamoeba coli: can cause temporary mild gastrointestinal distress
E. histolytica: causes amoebic dysentary.
What are some benefits of multicellularity?
Allows for bigger body size (movement of materials, defense, and food availability) and more complex structures.
Why might Phylum choanoflagellata and Proterospongia be important?
Choanoflafellata are identical in appearance to choanocytes. Proterospongia share many similarities with sponges.
What are some general characteristics of Poriferans?
Primarily marine, asymmetrical or radial symmetry, organized around a series of water canals/chambers, and no "true" tissues/cellular organization.
What is an osculum? Spongocoel?
Osculum: large aperture in a sponge through which water is expelled.
Spongocoel: large, central cavity of sponges.
What are the major differences between asconoids, syconoids, leuconoids? How specifically does water move through each?
Asconoids: least complex
Syconoids: more complex
Leuconoids: most complex
Water moves into the incurrent canal through the ostium. From there, it enters a flagellated chamber, and then enters an excurrent canal. It is expelled through the osculum.
What is the name of the three cell types in sponges? (e.g. Pinacocytes, Archaeocytes, and Choanocytes).
What are spicules?
Small structures within the sponge that give it support and deter predators.
Why are currents so important so sponges?
Carry away wastes
How do sponges reproduce? What does monoecius mean? What are gemmules?
Asexually and sexually
Monoecious - produce eggs and sperm at different times.
Gemmules - tough-coated dormant clusters of embryonic cells produced by freshwater sponges for development in more favorable conditions.
What adaptations do sponges have for a sedentary lifestyle?
What are some general characteristics of Cnidarians?
Mostly marine, radial or biradial symmetry, diploblastic, cnidocytes, gastrovascular cavity, nerve net
Cnidarians have a dimorphic body plan. What does this mean?
They have a life cycle that switches between polyps (asexual) and medusae (sexual).
What is alternate generations?
Cnidarian switch between asexual polyp and sexual medusae
How do Cnidarians feed?
Uses tentacles and nematocysts/cnidocyte to capture prey.
What are nematocysts?
A specialized cell in the tentacles of a jellyfish or other coelentrate, containing a barbed or venomous coiled thread that can be projected in self-defense or to capture prey.
Cnidarians have a nerve net. What is this and why is it important?
Nerve cells at the base of the epidermis and gastrodermis interconnect to form a nerve net to respond to localized stimuli.
What are the general characteristics of the four classes of Cnidarians that we talked about? (E.g. - what is the main body stage for each?)
Hydrozoa: alternate generations
What are some general characteristics of Ctenophora?
Biradial symmetry, diploblastic, gastrovascular cavity, nerve net.
What are comb rows and colloblasts?
Comb rows: fused cilia arranged along the sides of the animal that bead synchronously and propel ctenophores through the water.
Colloblast: sticky cells used to capture prey.
What are some general characteristics of flatworms?
Dorsoventrally flattened, bilateral symmetry, incomplete gut (or no gut), triploblastic acoelomate.
What ecological role do they play?
Free-living or parasitic.
What is a tegument?
Outer body covering among members of the phylum platyhelminthes.
How do they obtain nutrition? Briefly describe their digestive system. What does their digestive cavity look like?
They absorb nutrients through a mouth. Nutrients travel into a gut-type structure that holds and digests it. The digestive system then passes the nutrients evenly throughout the organism. They either have no digestive cavity, a simple digestive cavity, or a highly branched digestive cavity.
What are protonephridia? Flame cells?
Protenephridia remove excess water from flatworms.
Flame cells remove waste from flatworms.
How does the nervous system vary in platyhelminthes? What is an ocelli?
The nervous system can either be a simple nerve net to a centralized nerve net. Ocelli are light-detecting organs in platyhelminthes.
How do they reproduce? What is the direct development?
Asexually (transverse fission) or sexually. Direct development is where the animal after birth has no major differences with the adult that gave birth to it.
What are some general characteristics of Class Turbellaria? How do they move? Where do they live?
They are free-living planarians. They are mostly predators or scavengers. Small aquatic species use cilia for locomotion, and larger species use muscular movements to creep. They can live in aquatic environments or in shaded humid conditions.
What are some general characteristics of Class Trematoda? What is a digenitic fluke?
Digenetic flukes, endoparasites, oral suckers.
What is the difference between an intermediate and definitive host?
Intermediate host: host in which a parasite may multiply asexually
Definitive host: parasite sexually reproduces.
What is Schistosoma sp and why is it important?
-major blood fluke parasite in human hosts
-important because responsible for a highly significant group of infections in humans termed schistosomiasis
What is Cercarial Dermatitis? What are its hosts?
Swimmer's itch. cercariae larvae of a bird trematode parasite. It's hosts are humans.
What is a cercaria?
a free-swimming larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from an intermediate host (typically a snail) to another intermediate host or to the final vertebrate host.
What are some general characteristics of Class Monogenea? What is a Monogenetic fluke? What is an endoparasite?
They are ectoparasites. Adults are hermaphroditic. They have flattened leaf-shaped bodies. An endoparasite is a parasite that lives inside its host.
What are some general characteristics of Class Cestoidea? Describe their digestive system.
Digenetic, endoparasites, lack their own digestive system.
What is a proglottid?
Each segment in the strobila of a tapeworm, containing a complete sexually mature reproductive system.
What are some general characteristics of rotifers?
small, most freshwater, few marine, triploblastic, bilateral, pseudocoelomate, complete digestion system
How do rotifers reproduce?
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