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GEOG: Exam #2
Terms in this set (129)
(In the News) North Magnetic Pole
- it's changing
- Believe it's associated with the core of Earth
(In the News) Juan Guaido
- Has declared himself as the President
- Europe and U.S. now recognizes him as President in Venezuela
- U.S.A. Vice President
Pence supports him
(In the News) U.S. backs out of INF w/ Russia
(INF = Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty)
- 1987 nuclear treaty was signed (didn't want Russia attacking)
- Believe Russia has not been honoring this treaty - so Putin and Trump back out
(In the News) USA and who make a trade deal?
- worth $20 billion in deals
European Realm climates
C & D
4 Physiographic Regions
1. Central Uplands
2. Alpine Mountains
3. Western Uplands
4. North European Lowland
Which stage of the Demographic Transition model is most of Europe currently in?
- highly rugged topography
- many rivers run through it
- large mineral deposits (especially
- agriculturally suited for grazing livestock
- high mountains
- steep slopes
- few mountain breaks
- limited agriculture
6 basic characteristics of the European Realm
1. small continent
2. large population
3. highly urbanized
4. economically developed
5. center of land hemisphere
6. located near the North Atlantic Drift
Western Uplands (northern and western margins of Europe)
- rugged, hilly, craggy uplands (fjords)
- isolated and cold
- thinly settled area (i.e. Scotland, Iceland)
steep-sided valleys that are inlets of the sea
North European lowland
- continuous lowland area (France to Russia)
- many large rivers run through it
- large cities
- fertile soils
4 heritages of the European Realm
1. Ancient Greece
2. Roman Empire
3. Period of Feudalism
4. Renaissance: Rebirth of Europe
3 components of Ancient Greece
1. western democracy had origin here
2. formation of city-states
3. left a legacy of intellectual achievements
3 components of Roman Empire
(stretched from Britain to Persian Gulf)
1. first inter-regional political unit
2. local functional specialization (particular peoples in particular places)
3. fall of the Roman Empire (5th Century AD)
define local functional specialization
particular peoples in particular places
3 components of the Period of Feudalism
1. dark ages (retreat from scientific endeavors)
2. agricultural reforms (i.e. crop rotation, innovations)
3. the crusades; European expeditions to Jerusalem
2 components of the Renaissance
1. started in Venice and Florence, Italy
2. monarchies revived = formed basis for today's modern European states
3 Major Revolutions of Modern Europe
1. Agricultural revolution (18th century)
2. Industrial revolution
3. Political revolutions
1. land reforms
2. diversity of crops
3. farming methods
: rise in productivity, stable food supply, rise in urban population
Von Thunen Model
explains location of agricultureal activities in profit-making economy;
the higher the value or more perishable the crop, the closer it'll be located to the city
- cottage industry
- intro of machinery
- factory workers
: rise in manufacturing productivity industrial city, rapid urbanization
1st Nation-State to undergo the Industrial Revolution
Alfred Weber's study of
1. Agglomeration (concentrating forces)
2. Deglomeration (de-concentrating forces)
Agglomeration vs. Deglomeration
: (concentrating forces) near by; sophisticated, technology, large market
: (de-concentrating forces) spread a part; competition for space, high price land, pollution
group of people with a common history, culture and language
political and administrative apparatus with power over a group of people
territory with clearly define boundaries containing a group of people with a certain level of homogeneity
Centripetal vs. Centrifugal forces
: nation-building forces - things that tie a nation together
i.e. common language, religion
: divisive forces - things that pull a nation a part
i.e. religion conflicts...
pride in one's country; can be unifying or divisive
fragmentation of a country due to centrifugal forces
the voluntary association of 3+ countries willing to give up some of their sovereignty for the betterment of their union
5 examples of Centripetal Forces at the Continental lvl
(u.s. plan to rebuild europe after WW2)
European Economic Community
(goal to establish single european market, lower tariffs)
(single european market goes into effect)
(12/15 countries of EU adopted Euro)
6 original countries
france, germany, belgium, italy, netherlands, luxembourg
list EU expansions
2004 - expands to 25 countries
2007 - expands to 27 countries
2013 - expands to 28 countries
What's current number of countries in the EU?
28 possibly 27 after March
The British Exit from the European Union
used to describe when a region within a country wants increased autonomy (more power) from the central government
used to describe when one attempts to unite with one's cultural group that lives on the other side of a political boundary
Supranational process ________ the nation-state from above ________.
Regionalism and Nationalism ________ the nation-state from _________.
describe Western Europe
- heart of European Realm
- core region
- functional region
- arose from the destruction of WW12
- 11 countries
What are the landlocked countries of Western Europe?
Switzerland, Austria, Liechtenstein
core vs. functional region
: economic, industrial, and commerce center of Europe
: regional interaction, functional specialization, areal independence
- 3rd largest export
- 80.7 million = population
- split into 2 countries after WW2 (U.S. assisted in rebuilding West)
- immigration challenges
- economically worse off (40% live below poverty line)
- 2nd largest country in area
- #1 in Agriculture
- well-endowed w/ natural resources
- 80% of energy needs provided by nuclear power
Site vs. Situation
Site: physical attributes of the place it occupies
Situation: location relative to surrounding area
What's a primate city?
(extremely large comparatively)
city that has at least twice the population of any other city in its country
i.e.: Paris, Athens, Budapest
low countries of Europe (most lie below 1,000 feet in elevation - some below sea level)
- 99% urban
- NATO headquarters
- Co-capital of EU
- densely populated
- iron/steel industries
- linguistic problems (centrifugal/possible devolution?)
What important headquarters are found in Brussels, Belgium?
- densely populated
- reclaimed land
- highly skilled labor force
- Randstad (Ring City)
2 economic giants of Western Europe
define Polders ("Dutch Miracle)
3 major cities of Netherlands
Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague
also known as the Randstad (Ring City)
What's the Randstad?
Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and the Hague
large urban area of 2+ cities and a conurbation (huge metro)
capital: Luxembourg City
- 2nd in world in GN (income per citizen)
- Financial center and home to supranational and multi-national HQ
Which western europe country has the 2nd highest GNI in the world?
known for international banking
known as home of Red Cross HQ
- Poor arable land
- 4 languages spoken
- follow a policy of strict
- cultural center; home to many companies doing business in Eastern Eu.
- 1 language & religion
to Eastern Eu.
Why are Austria and its capital city Vienna, in a strategic situation?
Because they are tied to Eastern Europe
describe the Czech Republic
- Split with Slovakia (devolution) in 1993 (Velvet Divorce)
- very westernized
- bright economic future
- landlocked and mountainous
- one of world's smallest independent states
- 15% urban
- highly industrialized
- many international corporations
describe United Kingdom
- made up of England, Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland (Ulster)
(note: Scotland voted to remain in EU)
5 regions of United Kingdom
1. England - power center
2. Northern England - old industrial belt
3. Wales - rugged topography; strip mines
4. Scotland - rugged topography; oil fields; *POSSIBLE devolution)
5. Northern Ireland - 1/6 of island of Ireland; virtual civil war between Protestants & Catholics
What has been found in significant supplies off the north-eastern shores of the United Kingdom?
describe Republic of Ireland
- leading call center for toll free #'s
- Potato famine (1845; 1 mill. died; 2 mill. emigrated)
- economy moving from
agriculture to industry and service
- mountainous terrain (Fjords)
- turned to the sea (fishing/merchant marine fleet)
- oil & natural gas "Middle East"
- high GNI
- not a part of EU
Which Northern European country is sometimes called the "Sheikdom of Europe" because of the oil found off shore?
Which discontinuous North( Northern Europe) country has access to oil in the North Sea?
- shares Scandinavian Peninsula with Norway
- known for
fine finished goods
- pioneer in using nuclear power (no oil/natural gas)
- land of marsh (many lakes)
- limited agriculture (too cold/poor soils)
- economy based on wood industry
- precision machinery
Which country is known as the "land of marsh"? What created this type of landscape?
Finland; it's many lakes
- break of bulk point
- Jutland peninsula & many small islands
- agriculture & industry are both important
- bridge/tunnel between Denmark & Sweden
Where was the tunnel/bridge built connecting mainland Europe with the Northern Europe?
between Denmark & Sweden
What's the Break of Bulk point? What are 2 European cities that are break-of-bulk point cities?
A location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets.
i.e.: Copenhagen & Rotterdam
- not a part of EU
- active volcano, island country, mild climate
- economy based on sea fishing
- charter member of NATO
3rd happiest place
Which European country is actually part of a volcanic mountain range? Where is located latitudinally?
65 Degrees North
18 Degrees West
made up of 3 peninsulas
- part of periphery of core area
- Cs climate
- poor natural resource base
- Iberian peninsula
- NE corner = Industrial center (Barcelona)
- struggling economically (25% unemply.)
What region of Spain is known for industrialization and which country is it located in? What famous city is located in this region?
Barcelona and Catalonia
- 38% Urban
- population is coastal
- several natural harbors but port cities
- Vatican city, Milan, Venice & Florence
: sharp contrast between N & S (undeveloped - Naples)
Which industrial area of Italy is found along which river Basin? 3 major cities are associated with Italy's core region?
Po river Basin,
Milan, Turin, and Venice
Michealanglo's "David" is found in what city?
Joining the E.U is greater for poorer countries why?
because rich countries support them
- unique crescent shape
- part of EU and NATO
- 1st country to succeed from former Yugoslavia
- ethically very homogenous
- economically developed
capital: Athens (primate city)
- Cradle of democracy
- tourism = 24% GDP
- bankrupt economy; in political & economical turmoil
Which country is known as the cradle of democracy?
- 2 nations on one island
- split between Greeks & Turks
Which Island is split geographically with northern sections claimed by Turkish residents of the islands and the southern section by Greeks?
- communist in past
- Buffer zone, Shatterbelt, Irredentism...
- share Danune River
2 Countries with merchant marine fleets
Norway & Greece
What were the causes the let to the breakup of the country formulate known as Yugoslavia? Identify the various countries that emerged from the breakup.
Nationalism and centrifugal forces
Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Slovania, Serbia, Macadonia, Herzegovina
Which area of Europe does the term Balkanization fit best?
Eastern Europe (Balkan Peninsula)
Name and locate the largest river in Eastern Europe
What "Cracked open the Iron Curtain"?
Hungary opened its borders with Austria & E Europeans moved freely to W Europe..
What countries make up the Balkans/Former Yugoslavia?
- largest country left of former Yugoslavia
- split w/ Montenegro and Kosovo
- tiny coastline
- "synonymous w/ European Shame" from "ethnic cleansings"...
- landlocked & powerless
- dealt w/ autonomy (self rule) issues w/ Albanians
- name even causes issues w/ Greece
- separated from Serbia
- beautiful coastline that attracts tourists
- 1999 NATO & UN took charge of their province
- 95% ethnic Albanian
- Europe's 40th state
- remnant of Turkish Ottoman
Europe's poorest country
- muslim gateway to Europe
capital: Warsaw (primate city)
- soviet era industry (led to high
- Silesia center for coal industry
Name the former Soviet Republic that took the brunt of fighting during WWII
- national movement of Slovaks led to break up
: stateless peps or gypsies
Compare and contrast Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Both were once Czechoslovakia.
Czech: most westernized country in region, good economy.
Slovakia: least developed, most rural part of former Czechoslovakia.
capital: Budapest (primate cities)
- cracked the Iron Curtain by opening border w/ Austria
- Irredentism's possible
Which East European country has a population primarily of Asian Origin?
when a country tries to annex territory from another country and justifying it by saying the inhabitants are "their" people
capital: Tallinn (on the Gulf of Finland)
- industrialized economy
- strong cultural ties to Finland
- coast on Baltic Sea
- once regional power then annexed by Soviets, gaining independence in 1991
: exclave of Russia
What is the name of the Russian exclave located between 2 European countries? What's an exclave?
part of a country that is separated from the rest of the country
- seaport on Baltic Sea
- Riga = banking center for Russians look for safe place for money
- large Russian population
- declining economy
- violent overthrow of economy
- oil field empty
Which country is an old Roman province which violently overthrew their dictator?
capital: Sofia (inland location)
EU's poorest country
- large scale emigration to W Europe
- lots of tourism on Black Sea
Describe Bulgaria's relationship to Russia over the years
Liberated from Russia, but still very loyal to them
- transition zone = Shatterbelt
lost 25% of population in WWII
- strong ties to Moscow...
looks to them rather than the EU
define a Shatterbelt
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
- history of changing hands
- highly dependent on Russia for energy needs
- 2nd poorest country in Europe
- largest/most populous East European country
- rich in natural resources
- Russian influence in East (split politically between EU & Russia)
Significance of Donets Basin ( The donbas). Where is it located?
Located in Ukraine (east). It is rich in natural resources.
The crimean Peninsula belonged to which Eastern European Country? Who has it now?
In the East many have...
witnessed the break-up of countries into smaller units
i.e.: Former Yugoslavia, former Czechoslovakia...
In the West many are...
witnessing a strong unification of countries into smaller units
i.e.: European Union
European Union (EU)
the world's largest common market, composed of 28 European nations
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