Research midterm 2019 TIU

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What is the difference between Validity and Reliability?Validity- the degree to which inferences reflect how things are in actuality (does the research/test measure or test what it says it measures?) Reliability- A particular measurement technique, when applied repeatedly to the same object, would yield the same result each time. The more reliable the measure, the less random errorHow do Validity and Reliability affect each other ?High reliability does NOT mean high Validity.What is the IRB and what is their role ?Studies involving human subjects need to obtain approval from an independent panel of professionals called IRB IRBs became widespread during the 1970s as result of federal legislation & public concern with the ethics of biomedical & behavioral researchWhat are the factors to bear in mind when developing in Research Question ?It must be specific, must have a range of answersWhat are the 4 types of Validity?Statistical Conclusion Validity- degree to which the researcher has come to the correct conclusion through statistical analyses (about this relationship) - looking at causation Internal Validity- Degree of certainty with which one can conclude causal relationships Construct Validity- Degree to which a chosen variable captures the hypothetical construct (the degree to which measured variables used in the study represent the hypothesized constructs) External Validity- Degree to which the relationship can be generalized across units, treatments, outcomes and settingWhat are the different types of Research Designs covered in this course ? What is the definition for each ?Qualitative Research- Relies uponWhat is the Independent Variable ?Manipulated or controlled in the study (treatment or no treatment. May also be a condition, e.g., cognitive treatment vs interpersonal treatment)What is the Dependent Variable ?Comitant Changes are observed based on the Independent Variable. This is Usually What the Researcher is Observing for ChangeWhat is Randomization or Experimental Control ?Randomization- everyone has an equal opportunity to be assigned to a group Experimental Control- the degree to which a researcher controls the independent variableWhat is Generalization?The Degree to which the Results of a Study Can be Applied to a Real-World Setting (External Validity)What is the Null Hypothesis?Predicts that there is no relationship between the variables in the study ( no relationship between the Independent Variable and the dependent variable)What is the Alternative Hypothesis?States that there is some true relationship between the variablesWhat is Type I error ?Incorrectly concluding that a true relationship exists (rejecting the null hypothesis when in reality it should be accepted)What is Type II error?Incorrectly concluding that there is no relationship when one does exists (failing to reject that null hypothesis when in reality is should be rejected)......Descriptive Laboratory Studies-Characterized by Investigations that DO NOT exercise experimental controls (such as Randomization or Manipulation of the Independent Variables). Low Internal Validity and High External ValidityDescriptive Field Studies -Investigations that DO NOT Exercise Experimental Controls, and Controls, and are conducted in a Real-Life Setting. (real life settings .. high external validity) Low Internal Validity and High External ValidityExperimental Laboratory StudiesCharacterized by Manipulation of the Independent Variables and are Conducted in a Laboratory Setting. High in Internal Validity and Low in External ValidityExperimental Field StudiesInvestigations that Manipulate Independent Variables and are Conducted in a Real-Life Setting. High Internal and External ValidityWhat are the 4 Foundations of Human Behaviors (i.e. the Major Tenets of Philosophical Underpinnings)?1) Positivism 2) Postpositivism 3) Constructivism 4) Critical Theory