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Med Terms Chapter 5 Section 1

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nose
lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air.
nasal septum
partition separating the right and left nasal cavities.
paranasal sinuses
air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities.
pharynx
serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food eneters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus.
adenoids
lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity.
tonsils
lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth.
larynx
location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx.
epiglottis
flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing.
trachea
passageway for air to the bronchi.
bronchus
one of the two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore they are referred to as a bronchial tree.
bronchioles
smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree.
alveolus
air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries.
lungs
two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes, and the left lung has two lobes.
pleura
double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity which contains serous fluid.
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.
mediastinum
space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus
bronch/i, bronch/o
bronchus
diaphragmat/o, phren/o
diaphragm
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx
lob/o
lobe
nas/o,rhin/o
nose
pharyng/o
pharynx
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o
lung, air
pulmon/o
lung
sept/o
septum (wall off, fence)
sinus/o
sinus
thorac/o
thorax(chest)
tonsill/o
tonsil
trache/o
trachea
atel/o
imperfect incomplete
capn/o
carbon dioxide
hem/o, hemat/o
blood
muc/o
mucus
orth/o
straight
ox/o, ox/i
oxygen
phon/o
sound, voice
py/o
pus
somn/o
sleep
spir/o
breathe, breathing
a, an
absence of, without
endo
within
eu
normal, good
pan
all, total
poly
many, much
tachy
fast, rapid
algia
pain
ar,ary,eal
pertaining to
cele
hernia or protusion
centesis
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile need)
ectasis
stretching out, dilation, expansion
emia
blood condition
graphy
process of recording
meter
instrument used to measure
metry
measurement
pexy
surgical fixation, suspension
pnea
breathing
rrhagia
rapid flow of blood
scope
instrument used for visual examination
scopic
pertaining to visual examination
scopy
visual examination
spasm
sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
stenosis
construction or narrowing
stomy
creation of an artificial opening
thorax
chest
tomy
cut into or incision
adenoiditis
inflammation of the adenoids
alveolitis
inflammation of the alveolus
atelectasis
incomplete expansion (of the lung or portions of the lung)
bronchiectasis
dilation of the bronchi.
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus.
bronchopneumonia
diseased state of the bronchi and lungs, (usually caused by infection).
diaphragmatocele
hernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitis
inflammation of the epiglottis
hemothorax
blood in the chest (pleural space)
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)
lobar pneumonia
pertaining to the lobes; diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)
nasopharyngitis
inflammation of the nose and pharynx
pansinusitis
inflammation of all sinuses
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pleuritis
inflammation of the pleura. (also called pleurisy)
pneumatocele
hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumonia
diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, viruses, fungi)
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax
air in the chest(pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)
pulmonary neoplasm
pertaining to (in) the lung, new growth (tumor)
pyothorax
pus in the cest (pleural space) (also called empyema)
rhinitis
inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose.
rhinomycosis
abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagia
rapid flow of blood from the nose (also called epistaxis)
thoracalgia
pain in the chest
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils
tracheitis
inflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosis
narrowing of the trachea
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis (also called adult respiratory distress syndrome)
asthma
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are two main components, maybe caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis
coccidioidomycosis
fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body (also called valley fever or cocci)
cor pulmonale
serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
croup
condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness and stridor. Caused by viral, or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Occurs mainly in children.
cystic fibrosis (CF)
hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreas deficiency, and other symptoms.
deviated septum
one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum.
emphysema
stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
epistaxis
nose bleed (synonymous with rhinorrhagia)
influenza
highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (also called flu)
Legionnaire disease
a labor pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila.
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing, can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure.
pertussis
highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration or whoop (also called whooping cough)
pleural effusion
fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
pulmonary embolism (PE)
matter foreign to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and it's branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal. Blood clots broken loose from the deep veins of the lower extremities are the most common source of emboli.
pulmonary edema
fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles.
tuberculosis (TB)
an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs.
upper respiratory infection (URI)
infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)