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World Geography - Dr.Lee - Exam 1
Terms in this set (53)
What is globalization?
the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.
What do advocates of globalization say?
1.) The world is more united.
2.) People have access to a larger number of markets and products.
3.) less war due to trade
What do critics of globalization say?
Lost languages, poor get poorer, small countries have no say, loss of culture.
What is latitude?
Distance north or south of the equator (left to right)
What is longitude?
Distance east or west of the prime meridian (up and down)
What is the Koppen Climate Classification System?
a system made by Wladimir Koppen that bases the world's climates off of temperature and precipitation
What is an A climate?
Hot and Humid (located at the equator and in more tropical locations like the Amazon)
What is a B climate?
Hot and Dry (located in desert areas such as Middle East)
What is a C climate?
Mild/Varying (located in mid-latitude areas such as US and Europe)
What is a D climate?
Cold/Varying (located in areas such as Russia and Canada)
What is an E climate?
Extreme Cold (Polar temps in areas such as Greenland, Antarctica)
What is the best climate for agriculture?
A (Hot and Humid) or C (Mild/Varying)
What is a map scale?
The mathematical ratio between the map and the surface area being mapped. Ex: 1:2000 = 1 inch on map represents 2000 inches on land.
What is a map projection?
a way of drawing the earth's surface that reduces distortion caused by presenting a round earth on flat paper
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System. A computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
What is remote sensing?
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite.
What is RNI?
Rate of Natural Increase, the percentage of annual growth in a population excluding migration
What is CBR and CDR?
crude birth rate - crude death rate
What is TFR?
Total fertility rate. The average number of births a woman will have in her lifetime during her childbearing years.
What is replacement level fertility?
the number of children a couple must produce to "replace" themselves
What is urbanized population?
The percentage of the population that live in Urban areas. (Cities)
What is population density?
Number of individuals per unit area
What are push migration forces?
Negative conditions that drive people from a location such as crime, bad weather, tight job market, etc
What is the demographic transition model?
A conceptualization that tracks the changes in birth rates and death rates over time.
What are pull migration forces?
Favorable conditions that attract people to move from their home country such as better weather, job opportunities, etc
True or False: Map of PA is has a larger map scale than a map of the world.
How does PPP adjust gross national income per capita?
PPP was created to adjust comparisons between countries because (for example) an income of $10,000 in Mexico can purchase more basic goods than the same amount of money in Norway.
Growth vs Development
Growth: increase in size
Development: increase in capability or function
What is a nation, state, nation-state, and nation without a state?
Nation: A large group of people who share many cultural elements (language, religion, identity)
State: A political unit with territorial boundaries recognized by other countries. (US)
Nation-State: A homogenous cultural group with it's own fully independent political territory. (Japan)
Nation w/o a state: Palestine, Kurds
Is US a Nation or a state?
What economic condition does high RNI represent?
It represents a bad economic condition, because countries cannot afford the amount of people they have.
What is an ideal RNI?
Countries with a rate close to zero are demographically stable, but countries with persistent negative rates will experience slow declines in population unless immigration occurs.
What is an ideal TFR?
A TFR of 2.1 is considered the replacement rate, and suggests that it takes two children per woman to maintain a stable population.
What is a population pyramid?
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
What do different population pyramid shapes mean?
Rapid Growth - takes the shape of a triangle with a higher population of young people vs elderly.
Slow Growth- more square, has about the same amount of each age group
Negative Growth - has more elderly and middle aged adults than children
What is HDI and why is it a better measure than other economic indicators?
HDI is a rating system and measure of a populations standard of living, education, and health.
What does it mean to be a first, second or third world country?
First World - democratic
Second World - communist
Third World - developing and politically neutral
What does MDC and LDC stand for?
MDC- more developed country
LDC- less developed country
What is the core and periphery model?
Model that shows that most countries that have reached high levels of development are above the 30 degree latitude line. These MDCs are the core. the LDCs are the periphery
What are two major factors in climate patterns?
Precipitation and Temperature
What is a Cs climate and which cities have it?
Mediterranean (Dryer) ex: Los Angeles and San Diego
What is a Cfb climate and which cities have it?
Marine West Coast (Humid) ex: Seattle
What is gentrification?
Renovating old downtown w/ housing options
What are edge cities?
suburban towns that became independent from central city and other suburban areas, usually near a major freeway (Ex. Tyson's Corner, Virginia from D.C and Irvine, California from LA)
What is new urbanism?
A new philosophy encouraging sustainable development.
Examples of Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary sectors
Primary- Agriculture, Mining
Secondary- Manufacturing, GE
Tertiary- Low skill services
Quaternary- Higher skill services (education, engineering, doctor)
What is a megalopolis?
Large metropolitan areas dominate North America's population geography. Has cities surrounding major city, suburban areas, and commuting patterns. Ex: Boston, NY, Philly, DC, Tokkaido.
What is an example of cultural homelands?
Native American populations, hispanic borderlands, and french-canadian Quebec.
Which stages have 0 or extremely low population growth?
1 and 4 (Preindustrial and Industrial Agriculture)
How do you calculate rate of natural increase?
Crude birth rate minus crude death rate
What is the biggest factor of population concentration?
Access to fresh water
What is urbanization?
population movement from rural to urban/suburban areas
What is the #1 factor that shapes growth patterns in city development in US?
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