The level of care legally and ethically required of a provider. To meet the standard of care when providing first aid, a provider must one do what is expected of someone with first aid training and experience working under similar conditions and to treat the person to the best of his or her ability
deviation from the expected standard of care that result in further injury to the person. •negligence involves the following Having a duty to act,(and obligation to give first aid) Breaching the duty ( either by not giving care or by giving substandard care) Causing injuries and damages Exceeding your level of training
Who is legally obligated to give first aid?
Flight attendants and fire fighters.
Good Samaritan Law
Laws that encourage people to voluntarily help an injured or suddenly ill person by minimizing the liability for errors made while rendering emergency care in good faith
An abnormal breathing rate, pale or blue-gray skin, cool and clammy skin
A bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.Results in poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of blood.
Respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, and digestive system
Through respiratory system, the oxygen enters the body and then it is transported as oxyhaemoglobin to the cells with the help of cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system also performs the work to transport the waste product carbon dioxide to respiratory system, that evacuates it.
The cardiovascular system relates with digestive system for an optimum heart rate. The digestive system produces nutrients and with help of cardiovascular system transports these nutrients where it is needed. The digestive toxins are also discharged from system with the help of cardiovascular system that transports them to kidneys.
Anatomy of the heart
right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle.
When to decided you're going to help
When you recognize an emergency occurring and you won't be put in harms way. Reporting an emergency or accident to local authorities is a great way to help if you feel unsafe about the situation.
White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
White blood cells: defends against bacteria. Red blood cells: carries oxygen to the organs. Platelets: help your blood to clot.
When to check for breathing
Look to see if their chest is rising and falling. Listen over their mouth and nose for sounds. Feel their breath against your check for 10 seconds.
When CPR is needed
If your patient stops breathing or their heart stops beating in the hospital, the standard of care is to perform CPR in the absence of a valid physician's order to withhold it. Similarly, paramedics responding to an arrest in the field are required to administer CPR in most legal jurisdictions.
How to check for responsiveness
Tap on shoulder and ask "Are you okay?", doesn't respond then call 9-1-1 and provide care
When to stop CPR
You see an obvious sign of life, such as breathing. An AED is available and ready to use. Another trained responder or EMS personnel take over. You are too exhausted to continue. The scene becomes unsafe
When to check for circulation
With the victim's airway open, look, listen, and feel for breathing for about 5-10 seconds by placing your cheek near the victim's mouth and watching for their chest to rise and fall.
Rescue breaths lengths for child and infant
30 compression 2 breaths
Depths of compression on adult, child, and infant
Hand placement and number of "hands" used for compression's for adult, child, infant
Adult: 2 hands Child: 2 hands Infant: 2 fingers
Rate of compression's for adult, child, infant
100 compression's per minute
How to open an airway
head tilt, chin lift.
How to handle responsive choking victim's medium size, large and small, adult, child, infant
Hand placement on a choking victim, adult child, infant
Above the navel, one hand holding onto the other
How to manage an unresponsive choking victim (adult, child, infant)
1. Check the airways. 2. Begin CPR. 3. Get someone to get the AED and to call 911.
When do we start CPR?
When someone is unconscious, unresponsive, not breathing, or not breathing normally.
When to call for help?
After you begin to help the individual.
Hand placement for adult, child, infant, CPR
Adult: below the sternum/breast bone. Child: below the sternum/breast bone. Infant: two fingers, below the breast bone.
How many compression's do we give to an adult, child, infant?
Adult: 30 Child: 30 Infant: 30
How many breaths do we give an adult, child, infant?
How long should each breath last?
Depth of compression for adult, child, infant
Adult: 2 inches Child: 1/3 depth of chest size Infant: 4 cm
How to give breaths for adult, child, infant,
Adult and child: Chin tilt up, cover the mouth with your mouth, give two breaths, watch for chest to rise. Infant: Keep head in neutral position, cover nose and mouth with your mouth, give two breaths.
Hand placement for abdominal thrust
Adult and child: Slightly above the belly button. Infant: 5 and 5, 5 back and 5 front.
How should the fist be place when giving abdominal thrusts?
Above the belly button.
How to treat an infant that is unresponsive and choking
When is the mouth to nose used and when is the mouth to stoma used?
Nose: if the mouth is seriously injured. Stoma: when the person has a stoma
Ages for what makes an adult an adult, child a child, infant a infant
Adult: After puberty Child: 1-12 years old Infant: under a year old
When is defibrillation most effective?
within the first few minutes following cardiac arrest
Where should AED be place?
The pads should be placed: one of the right side of chest, below the clavicle but above nipple, on on the left side of the chest below the armpit, left of the nipple, and above the lower rib margin.
Understand ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation
Blood stops flowing to the brain and other organ try to get the heart pumping again.
What does CPR do?
Circulates oxygen to the tissues and manually pumps the heart
How does the AED work?
It sends a shock to the person's heart to restore it to a normal rhythm.
How many pads are used on the chest with AED?
How is an AED used?
1. Turn it on. 2. Listen to the directions. 3. Apply pads to the chest. 4. Connect pads to the AED. 5. Wait until it tells you to shock. 6. Shock person. 7. After shock, continue CPR and wait for paramedics.
When should you clear people for the use of an AED?
Before the shock is administered.
What do we do after we shocked the victim?
Continue CPR and wait for the paramedics to arrive.
Where should we place an AED pad if there was an implanted device on the front of the chest?
Not on the implanted device.
What should be in a AED container?
A razor, the AED machine, adult pads, child pads, gloves.
What would you do if the person has a medication patch on the front of their chest right where the pad goes?
Remove the patch with gloves.
If the mouth of a victim is severely injured, what do you do for CPR?
Perform mouth to nose CPR.
What would you do with a victim with a stoma?
Close off the victims air ways, put your mouth over the stoma and blow air through the stoma.
Ages of individuals and how it affects how we treat? (I.e. What makes an infant an infant?)
Adult: after puberty Child: 1-12 years old Infant: under a year old
AED supplies should include?
A razor, hand towel, breathing device and exam gloves
Where AED pads are place on the victim, adult, child, infant
Adult: one on the left side of the chest, one on the right side of the chest. Child and Infant: place one pad on the middle of the chest. Place one pad on the middle of the back.
How many pads are placed on a victim's chest?
Most common rhythm, when a person is having a heart attack
A, B, C, D, E
Blood Borne Disease
Disease such as HBV, HCV, or HIV infection that is caused by microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in blood.
Personal Protective Equipment
When a rescuer is sizing up the scene, what are they looking for?
That the scene is safe and no one is in danger.
When and why would a rescuer help or not?
How long can oxygen be cut off before death occurs?
Anatomy of the Airway and Digestive system and what they do. Ex: Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Esophagus
What causes suffocation in an unresponsive patient?
When something is blocking their airway, like their tongue or food.
Inhalation and exhalation
the flow of air into an organism / the flow of air out of the organism
A bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.
Responsive, Activate, Breathing,
Compressions, Airway, Breathe
Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive
What is shock?
A life-threatening medical condition whereby the body suffers from insufficient blood flow throughout the body as a result of severe injury or illness
a condition in which blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing heart cells to die
Haines Recovery Position
High Arm In Endangered Spine recovery position, to keep the airway open and clear
Chain of Survival
Early Access, Early CPR, Early Defibrillation, Early Advanced Care
Leading cause of death in the U.S.
Arteries vs. Veins
Arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart.
Know the four different types of arteries: femoral, carotid, radial, brachial
Femoral: large artery in thigh. Carotid: Supply blood to the brain, neck, and face. Radial: in the human forearm Brachial: in the upper arm