Upgrade to remove ads
Biology: The Core - Chapter 4
Terms in this set (29)
The capacity to do work, cause change, or to move matter, in a direction it would not move if left alone
The movement of an object against an opposing force through the expenditure of energy
Energy of motion; moving matter performs work by transferring its motion to other matter
Stored energy; the energy that an object has due to its location and/or arrangement
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy
The amount of kinetic energy (motion) contained in the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter
An organism that makes organic food molecules from carbon dioxide, water, and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium; the trophic level that supports all others in a food chain or food web
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria transform light energy to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugars; requires input of CO2 and H2O and produces O2 as a waste
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists; enclosed by two membranes, absorbs sunlight, and uses it to power the synthesis of organic food molecules (sugar)
An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants
The harvesting of energy from food molecules under aerobic (oxygen present) conditions to make ATP.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs; enclosed by two membranes, where most of the cell's ATP is made
A light-absorbing pigment in chloroplasts that plays a central role in converting solar energy to chemical energy. Green in color.
The first of two stages of photosynthesis, the steps in which solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH; H2O is split to make O2
The second of two stages of photosynthesis; a cyclic series of chemical reactions that use the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions to make glucose
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups; the main energy source for cells; can be broken down to a molecule of ADP and a free phosphate; this reaction releases energy that can be used for cellular work
Occurs under anaerobic conditions in some cells/organisms. Allows for some ATP production when oxygen is absent.
The total of all the chemical reactions in an organism
The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; produces 2 ATP
Fossil (legacy) fuels
Carbon rich fuels formed over tens of millions of years from the remains buried organisms that did not completely decompose. Coal- land plants. Oil and gas- Small marine organisms
Lactic acid fermentation
Fermentation that produces lactic acid as a by-product. Done by some bacteria and animals.
Fermentation that produces ethanol and CO2 as a by-product. Done by some bacteria and yeast.
Green light and photosynthesis
Light in green wavelengths provides the least amount of energy of all wavelengths that powers photosynthesis.
Action spectrum of photosynthesis
The action of photosynthesis under a given light wavelength. Measured by CO2 uptake or O2 production.
Products of lactic acid fermentation
Yogurt, pickled foods, sourdough bread flavor
Products or alcohol fermentation
Beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages, bread (air holes)
From where does a tree get its mass?
Most of the mass of a tree comes from the tree taking in CO2 and using the carbon to make its molecules and tissues
The process by which re-radiation of heat from a planet's atmospheric greenhouse gasses warm the planet to a temperatures above what it would be without greenhouse gasses. Greenhouse gasses trap heat.
Atmospheric gasses that absorb and re-radiate heat energy. CO2, H2O, CH4, NOX, Ozone
Recommended textbook explanations
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections
Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Martha R. Taylor
Concepts in Biology
Eldon D. Enger, Frederick C. Ross
MCAT/GRE Kaplan Test Preparation Guide for Biology
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Sets found in the same folder
Biology The Core: Chapter 3
Biology (The Core) Chapter 1.
Biology: The Core - Chapter 2
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 4 Bio
Chapter 4 Bio
Biology: Ch. 4
Honors Biology Chapters 8 - 9 vocab list
Other sets by this creator
Biology The Core Chapter 6: DNA: The Molecule of L…
Biology: The Core- Chapter 6
Abbreviations- Week 1
Suffixes- Week 1
Other Quizlet sets
ECOL 302 Final
chapter 14 econ
review terms for exam 2