Terms in this set (101)
The functions in the human body during and after exercise.
Every human body has the same
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Primary energy molecule of the body
ATP breaksdown into what?
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) & a hydrogen ion
What are the 3 energy systems?
>ATP/Creatine Phosphate System (phosphagen system)
>Aerobic Oxidation System
Pyruvate is the end product which is the first step in the break down of carbs.
Can glycolysis occur in the absence of oxygen even though it is anaerobic? What is it's end product?
When the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply...
hint: acid doses
>Pyruvate is converted to lactate
>Causes muscle burn
>Hydrogen lowered and buffered so we get muscle acid doses
Aerobic Oxidation System
Which Energy System?
*Moderate to low intensity ( < 85% max effort )
Fuel Source: carbs, proteins, fats
Duration: 3 > minutes
Which Energy System?
*High to moderate intensity ( 85-95% of max effort )
Fuel Source: just carbs
Duration: 10 secs to mins
Creatine Phosphate System
Which Energy System?
*Very high to high intensity ( 95-100% max effort )
Fuel Source: primarily creatine phosphate
The synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. It occurs primarily in the liver and kidneys whenever the supply of carbohydrates is insufficient to meet the body's energy needs.
Intrafusal Muscle Fibers are:
>Muscle fibers that compose the muscle spindle.
>Walled off from rest of muscle by collagen sheath
Connection between an Alpha Motor Neuron and an Extrafusal Muscle Fiber is called?
Lactate Threshold or Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (OBLA)
Sudden rise in lactate
The main source of anaerobic ATP is ________ which is stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen.
The build up of ATP production waste...
The metabollic process in which hydrogens are removed from four molecules in a circular fashion, starting with pyruvate degraded down to acetyl-CoA.
Muscles can be defined as:
The 2 components of muscles that define their movement properties:
>Active Contractile Component
Active Contractile Component traits?
>produces tension through the sliding of microscopic fibers
>shortens the muscle
Passive Non-Contractile traits?
>Consist of tendons, connective tissue & ligaments
3 Connective Tissues that encompass muscles:
What is a Myofibril?
The smallest unit of a muscle cell which is composed of 2 myofilaments.
Myofilaments in a Myofibril contain which 2 filaments?
>Thick filament containing Myosin protein
>Thin Filament containing Actin protein
What are cross bridges in a myosin molecule?
Strictly refers to the molecular structure consisting of a myosin head-group bound to an actin molecule.
Perimiseum and Epimiseum come together to form the __________.
Which then become continuous with the outer layer of the bone.
A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it activates.
When the binding site with ATP is open, the second cross bridge is still connected to the actin molecule after finishing its power stroke. This position is called:
When ATP molecule binds to the cross bridge, it disengages the second cross bridge from the actin molecule. ATP is now hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, releasing its energy to the second crossbridge and causing it to revert back to its original position. This position is called:
The actin filament is made up of what 3 protein molecules?
*these are strung together like pearl necklace
Types of Muscle Tissues
2 main muscle fibers in skeletal muscle?
>Slow twitch (Type 1)
>Fast twitch (Type 2)
Slow Twitch Fiber traits?
>Oxidative fibers which are fatigue resistant and have low glycotic capacity
>Rich in capillaries and myoglobin
>Red in color due to lots of blood vessels
>Increased # of mitocondria
Fast Twitch Fibers traits:
>Type 2a & Type2b
Don't use oxygen to make energy, so rich blood supply is not needed. Also, larger and well suited for brief, powerful contractions. Recruited at a higher % of max force.
-pink in color
-high oxidative capacities
-white in color
-low oxidative capacities
Cardiac Muscles are composed of 3 layers:
hint: E, M, E
>Epicardium (inner wall of pericardium)
>Myocardium (composed of contractible cardial muscle)
>Endocardium (inner layer that's in contact with the blood the heart pumps, also merging with inner lining of blood vessels and covers heart valves).
Origin of the Muscle
Attachment site that doesn't move during contraction
Muscles that cause flexion at a joint
Muscles that cause extension at a joint
Responsible for causing desired motion at a joint
Muscles that directly oppose desired motion
Muscles that assist Agonist perform a desired motion.
Muscles that contract isometrically at a joint but do not contribute to movement
Sherrington's Law of Reciprocal Inhibition states:
"When an agonist or prime mover is called upon to perform a desired motion, the antagonists are neurologically inhibited."
When the agonist and antagonist contract simultaneously
example: biceps brachii
Distal tendon CLOSE to the joint axis
>Distal tendon FAR from the joint axis
>Usually act as joint stabilizers
Examples: Triceps surae, Erector spinae, Upper trapezius
>Contributes to movement with low levels of innervation
>High proportion of slow twitch fibers
>Penniform type arrangement
>Crosses at ONE joint and at an angle to tendant
Examples: Gluteus medius, Triceps brachii, Deltoids
>Involved in stabilizing and producing of dynamic movements
>High proportion of fast twitch fibers
>Crosses at more than one joint
Double Jointed Muscles:
Cross two joints and are able to produce motion at more than one joint.
*More susceptible to active and passive sufficiency
When a double-jointed muscle is recruited to work at both joints, causing an over-shortening of the muscle.
Occurs when an inactive muscle at a joint is of insufficient length to permit full range of motion.
3 Types of Muscular Contractions
>Concentric (shortening of muscle fibers)
>Eccentric (lengthening of muscle fibers) *strongest of the 3
>Isometric (contraction of muscle fibers with no visual movement)
All or None Principle
"When a myofiber is innervated by a nerve cell, it either contracts totally or not at all." Which principle?
A single motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates.
Motor Unit Pool
All of the motor units that subserve a single muscle
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
"micro trauma" in the tissue results in
Alpha Motor Neurons
>Larger, lower neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord
>Part of somatic nervous system
>Innervate and contract extrafusal muscle fibers
Gamma Motor Neurons
>Slow conducting, lower
>Innervate intrafusal muscle fibers
>Form reflex circuit that underlies muscle spindles (making them an important part of sensing body position)
Extrafusal Muscle Fibers
>Contraction generates mechanical work and allows for movement
>Innervated by alpha motor neurons
>Create a motor unit with alpha motor neurons
>Contraction between these and alpha motor neurons is called Neuromuscular Junction
>Sensory or receptor neurons
>Carry nerve impulses from receptors/sense organs TOWARDS the central nervous system
>Motor or effector neurons
>Carry nerve impulses AWAY from the central nervous system to effectors (muscles,glands)
Sliding Filament Theory
The theory that states: "The two main proteins actin and myosin, interact by sliding across eachother at the expense of ATP. For this to happen the muscle must receive a signal from the central nervous system."
Size Principle of Recruitment
This principle states "Selection of motor neuron size and the muscle fibers it innervates follow an order of efficiency, from smallest to largest. Generally speaking, motor units containing smaller motor neurons and slow-twitch fibers are recruited first, followed by increasingly large motor neurons consisting of fast twiitch fibers".
Graduation of Response
"The process by which the central nervous system determines the number and types of motor units recruited as well as the number of times they fire, causing appropriate responses relative to the degrees of muscle force required."
Body fat make up ___ to ___% body fat in men.
___ to ____% in women.
Fat % recommendation for men and women based on NCCPT?
Men = 10-15%
Women = 15%-20%
Chemical messengers that are stored, created and release by endocrine glands. Regulate growth, development, help cope with stresses on body, regulate forms of training responses (fat mobilization, protein metabolism and eregy production)
the principal male sex hormone and anabolic steroid
Primary anabolic hormones involved in muscle tissue growth and repair
>insulin like growth factors
Secreted from the pituitary gland and made from over 190 amino acids
>Released by the pancreas
>Increases cellular uptake of glycogen, decreasing glucose levels
>Causes breakdown of protein in muscles and is catabolic
>Antagonist that prevents glucose uptake and utilization
>Too much can cause Ketosis
>Greater catabolic effect in fast twitch muscles
What "fight or flight" hormones are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress?
Transport system that serves to integrate the body as a whole. It's role is to provide a continuous influx of oxygen and nutrients to provide an outlet for carbon dioxide and waste.
Components of the cardiovascular system:
>high pressure distribution system
>gas exchange units
>low-pressure collection and return system
The pressure in the arteries during the two phases of the cardiac cycle: systole and diastole
The pressure of the arteries during ventricular contraction
The pressure of the arteries during ventricular filling
Normal blood pressure:
120 = systolic
80 = diastolic
*Mild Hypertension = 140/90 aka high blood pressure
Attempt to exhale with the glottis tightly shut. Considered harmful.
The result of stroke Volume x Heartbeats per minute.
*Heart rate x stroke volume
Maximum Oxygen Capacity or VO2Max
The total capacity to consume oxygen within the cells. Maximal oxygen intake.
VO2Max is expressed in either:
>absolute rate in liters of oxygen per min (1/min)
>relative rate in mililiters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per min (ml/kg/min)
The theoretical maximum beats per minute a heart can pump.
Target Heart Rate is calculated:
(220-AGE) x % = THR
standard deviation for heartrate equations
The intensity level where the cardiovascular system is unable to supply enough oxygen to the exercising muscles.
-the heart muscle
-comprised of type 1 fibers
Atria of the heart
Serve as temporary storage for blood immediately before it is flushed into the main pumps in the bottom chambers (ventricles).
blood pumped through the left ventricle travels through this.
When vigourous activity is stopped abrubtly, the blood that has pooled in extremeties may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain.
Target Heart Rate (THR)
Specific range based on a percentage of the max heart rate.
Zone 1 (HR Zone)
-Will normally occur between 40-65% of MHR
-recovery zone, fat burning zone
Zone 2 (HR Zone)
-Occur between 65-85%
-Aerobic endurance zone
Zone 3 (HR Zone)
Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
Body continues to need oxygen after weight training or cardio at a higher rate than before the exercise began.
Attempt to challenge the musculoskeletal system with unaccustomed stimulation such as, increased weight, speed or volume of training (number of sets or reps).
*S.A.I.D Principle: Specific Adaption to Imposed Demands
The focused effort of exercise in a way such as anaerobic/aerobic or strength/endurance
The taking into account of genetic makeup, exercise history, fiber type ratio, motivation level and anatomical physics of the body.
Major decrease in strength and anaerobic capacity are apparent after two weeks without exercise.
The gradual cycling of workout parameters such as specificity, intensity or volume to achieve a specific goal.
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