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HR Ch 12
Terms in this set (33)
the power of goal setting
-we set goals everyday (ex: cooking a meal) bc we want to get something we want through our actions or we want to prevent or avoid something we don't want
-if we don't name our goals we can still have them, they are just covert
-goals can be enhancing or limiting
-at their best, goals mobilize our resources and get us moving
goals help clients focus their attention
goals help clients mobilize their energy and direct their effort
-clients who seem lethargic during the problem exploration phase often come to life when asked to discuss possibilities for a better future
-clients with goals are less likely to engage in aimless behavior. it does not just take place in the brain.
-many clients begin engaging in constructive change after setting even broad goals
goals provide incentives for clients to search for strategies to accomplish them
-setting goals (stage 2) leads naturally into a search for means to accomplish them (stage 3)
clear and specific goals help clients increase persistence
-clients with clear and specific goals tend to work harder and longer. they don't give up as easily.
-people with a sense of direction translate wishes into specific outcomes toward which they can work
-one study showed that high-goal-directed retirees were more outgoing, involved, resourceful, and persistent in their social settings than low-goal-directed retirees
-clients may be anywhere on the continuum from aimless to very directed
task IIB: help clients move from possibilities to choices
-task IIA is about creativity, getting rid of boundaries, thinking beyond one's limited horizon
-task IIB is about innovation: turning possibilities into a practical program for change.
-must help clients set REALISTIC goals
-a goal is a CONCEPT, an accomplished goals is an OUTCOME
-if the outcome has a positive impact on the problem situation, then it is a problem managing or opportunity developing outcome
flexible guidelines in helping clients set goals for themselves
-practical goals do not usually leap out fully formed- they need to be shaped/designed
-goals are specific statements about what clients want and need
-goals that emerge should be:
--stated as outcomes rather than activities
--specific enough to be verifiable and to drive action
--substantive and challenging
--both venturesome and prudent
--realistic in regar to the internal and external resources needed to accomplish them
--sustainable over a reasonable time period
--flexible without being wishy washy
--congruent with the client's values
--set in a reasonable time frame
-there is no one formulas
help clients describe the future they want in outcome or accomplishment language
-goal of counseling is not discussing/planning/engaging in activities
-helping is about problem managing outcomes.
-ex: "I want to start doing exercise" is an activity rather than an outcome.
-help clients describe what they need and want by using a past participle approach. ex: drinking stopped, number of marital fights decreased
-helping clients state goals as outcomes or accomplishments helps them avoid directionless and imprudent action. provides direction.
-it is helpful when clients draw "pictures" of what they want
help clients move from broad aims to clear and specific goals
-good intentions (ex: "I need to do something about this") are a good start, but they need to be translated into aims and goals
-a broad aim has content. it identifies the area in which the client wants to work and makes some general statement about that area (ex: "I want to spend more time with my wife and kids.")
-specific goals: counselor can use probes such as "Tell me what spending more time at home will look like." setting a specific pattern of behavior to put in place.
-instrumental vs. ultimate goals: ultimate= good family life. instrumental= spend more time at home.
-since instrumental goals are strategies for achieving higher order goals, it is important to make sure that the client has clarity about the ultimate/higher order goal.
-cannot get lost in the planning details and make crafting the goal more important than the goal itself
-feedback system: evaluating progress and collaborate on goal clarification. being able to determine progress is an important incentive. if goals are stated too broadly it is difficult to determine both progress and accomplishment.
help clients establish goals that make a difference
-goals have substance to the degree that they make some significant contribution toward managing the original problem situation or developing some opportunity
-goals also have substance to the degree that they help clients "stretch themselves"
-research: within reasonable limits, the more challenging the goal, the better the resulting performance. people exert more effort for a harder goal. partial success can be achieved and is rewarded.
-challenging should not mean impossible
help clients formulate realistic goals
-Locke and Latham: nothing causes feelings of despair like perpetual failure. a primary purpose of goal setting is to increase the motivation level of the individual. but goal setting can have precisely the opposite effect if it produces too much failure.
-a goal is realistic if the client has access to the resources needed to accomplish it, the goal is under the client's control, and external circumstances do not prevent its accomplishments
-ex: believing that one's problems would be solves if other people changed (not under client's control)
help clients set goals that are prudent
-action needs to be both directional and wise. prudent and realistic are not the same things.
help clients set goals that can be sustained
-clients need to commit themselves to goals that have staying power
-many AA-like programs work because of their one day at a time approach
help clients choose goals that have some flexibility
-in many cases goals have to adapted to changing realities
-therefore, there might be some tradeoffs between goal specificity and goal flexibility in uncertain situations
-clients' choices need to be adapted to their changing circumstances
-flexibility- refers to the client's ability to modify goals while keeping intact the original purpose of the goal. also the client's ability to change tactics when one course of activity is blocked or proves to be ineffective
-tenacity- refers to the ability to stick with a goal or the means to achieve the goal even when the going gets rough
-rigidity- sticking with the original formulation of a goal or a set of actions to achieve a reasonable goal even when the goal itself is proving to be ineffective in managing a problem situation or the action program is not doing its job
-flexible tenacity is recommended for goal pursuit
help clients choose goals consistent with their values
-helping only remains ethical if it respects the values of the client within reason
-problems involve a client's trying to pursue contradictory goals or values
help clients establish realistic time frames for accomplishing goals
-immediate outcomes: changes in attitudes and behaviors evident in the helping sessions themselves
-intermediate outcomes: changes in attitudes and behaviors that lead to further change
-final outcomes: refer to the completion of the overall program for constructive change through which problems are managed and opportunities are developed
-achievement of sequenced mini goals, esp in the beginning, can go a long way
-it is not always necessary to make sure that each goal in a client's program for constructive change has all the characteristic outline in this chapter
what kind of change do clients need and how much?
-the degree of change sought is in the client's hands
-a complete personality goal is an unrealistic goal
help clients distinguish needs from wants
-what clients want and need my overlap or diverge
-goal setting should focus on the package of needs and wants that makes sense for the particular client
-involuntary clients often need to be challenged to look beyond their wants to their needs
help clients consider adaptive goals
-even clients who choose goals that can be called "big" in one way or another need a bit-by-bit approach to achieving these goals
-the term "within reasonable limits" will differ from client to client
-Wheeler and Janis: sometimes it is more reasonable to choose a satisfactory alternative than to continue searching for the absolute best. the time, energy, and expense of finding the best possible choice may outweigh the improvement of the choice
-helping the client lead a life that it a little bit better than the best possible solution
-choosing strategic self limitation: putting up barriers to change (reluctance and resistance) limits both risk and uncertainty. even though this may be self-handicapping, it is not the therapists' job to push clients to adopt a specific set of goals.
-when a therapist helps a client adapt rather than conquer, neither party is failing. there is not one universal rule of success.
coping as an important goal
-choosing an adaptive rather than stretch goal has been associated with coping
-positive affect is important in coping
-positive reappraisal: helping clients reframe a situation in a positive light
-problem focused coping: help clients deal with problems one at a time as they arise. the sense of mastery and control she experiences when getting through these can lead to positive affect.
-infusing ordinary events with positive meaning: even in times of stress, people note and remember positive things.
-what kind of coping skills does the client have? even if clients have coping skills, they need flexibility to fit the skill to the situation and alter it when necessary. if they don't have the skills, helpers can teach them.
second order change goals
-deals with how big/extensive the substantive change is (degree of problem managing power)
-coping is at one end of the continuum, second order change is at the other.
first order vs second order change
-adjustment to the current situation vs changing the underlying system
-motoring on as well as possible vs creating something new
-change based on old/no learning vs change based on new learning
-fiddling with symptoms vs attacking causes
-second order change is seen as "real" change
-can also be seen as a continuum, with first order at one end and second order at the other
-sometimes first order change is the only possible option
-goals can naturally emerge through client helper dialogue or in the client's everyday life without setting them in an explicit way
-once clients are helped to clarify a problem situation they begin to see more clearly what they want and what they have to do to manage the problem
-explicit goal setting is still very important
task IIC: help clients commit themselves
-not really a sequential step but a dimension of the goal setting process
-as if the client's old self/lifestyle begins vying for resources with the client's new self/lifestyle
-why should i pursue this goal?
-is it worth it?
-is this where i want to invested my limited resources?
-what competes for my attention?
-timing for each client to accomplish goals varies
help clients commit themselves to a better future
-proof of initial commitment is goal accomplishing actions
-counselors can help clients make goals appealing, enhance their sense of ownership, and deal with competing agendas
help clients set goals that are worth more than they cost
-ex: trying to prolong one's life who has cancer but having to go through radiation, chemotherapy, surgery. is it worth it?
-help clients understand the consequences of choosing a particular goal
incentives: help clients set appealing goals
-setting appealing goals is common sense, but is not always easy to do.
-ex: a drug free life is not immediately appealing to many addicts
-incentive is promise of reward
-incentives can contribute to developing a climate of hope around problem management
-reframing goals into getting something positive vs giving up something negative can help
ownership: help clients embrace and own the goals they set
-it is essential that the goals chosen be the client's rather than the helper's or someone else's
-from compliance to ownership:
--compliance "i guess i have to change"
--buy in "changing is essential to saving our marriage" (depends too much on one reason)
--ownership: "this goal is my idea and it is what i want to do"
-contracts as commitment devices: self-contracts (the contracts that clients make with themselves) can also help clients commit themselves to behave in certain ways and to attain certain goals. can make goals more focused
-no such thing as a perfect contract (people cannot anticipate all consequences of a contract)
obstacles: help clients deal with competing agendas
-other things in their lives that soak up time and energy
-programs for constructive change often involve a rearrangement of priorities
-sometimes clients have to choose btw right and right (not all competing agendas are frivolous)
great expectations: encourage client self efficacy
-"I can, I will."
-clients need to find motivation within themselves
-self regulation is the goal. counselor's role is to help client choose goals, develop commitment to them, and develop a sense of agency and assertiveness
-expectancy on the part of the client contributes significantly to successful outcomes
the nature of self efficacy
-Bandura: "perceived self efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations. efficacy beliefs influence how people think, feel, motivate themselves, and act."
-peoples' expectations of themselves have a great deal to do with their willingness to put forth effort to cope with difficulties, the amount of effort they will expend, and their persistence in the face of obstacles
-two conditions are needed for clients to take action:
--outcome expectations: clients tend to act when they see that their actions will most likely lead to certain desirable results or accomplishments.
--self efficacy beliefs: people tend to act when they are reasonable sure that they have the internal resources to successfully engage in the kind of behavior that will lead to the desired outcomes
helping clients develop self efficacy
-skills- make sure that clients have the skills they need to perform desired tasks. acquiring skills AND feeling competent about they can help clients increase their SE.
-corrective feedback- provide feedback that is based on deficiencies in performance, not on deficiencies in the client's personality. corrective feedback can help clients develop a sense of SE bc it helps clear away barriers to the use of resources.
-positive feedback- provide positive feedback and make it as specific and corrective feedback. positive feedback strengthens' clients SE by emphasizing their strengths and reinforcing what they do well. "Nice job" (not specific at all) is not very useful. "Here's what you did, here's the positive outcome it had, and here's the wider upbeat impact."
-success as a reinforcer- invite clients to challenge themselves to engage in actions that produce positive results. even small successes can increase SE. often success in a small endeavor will give the courage to try something more difficult. success has to be linked to a sense of increased competence.
-models- help clients increase their own sense of self efficacy by learning from others. learning makes clients more competent and increases their SE.
-providing encouragement- support clients' SE beliefs without being patronizing. encouragement and support must be tailored to each client.
-reducing fear and anxiety- fear blocks clients' self efficacy. if clients fear that they will fail, they will be reluctant to act.
Stage II and Action
-each task can be a trigger for action for diff clients
-A: developing possibilities for a better future. helps them from thinking solely about the problem situation.
-B: shaping goals. helps them see the future in a diff way.
-C: search for incentive soft commitment. they see what's in it for them.
-Gollwitzer- common problems associated with translating goals into action: failing to get started, becoming distracted, reverting to bad habits. strong intentions are better than weak intentions.
This set is often in folders with...
The Skilled Helper
Helper theory exam
Skills and Questions for Egans skilled helper
Helping Skills Midterm
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