40 terms

Cross-Cultural Communication

SISU 140
Fundamental Attribution Error
trait attribution: behavior is cultural, it is typical of "those people"
situation attribution: the circumstances caused bad behavior
power of state protection through legislation (low context)
system of mores, religion, customs, emphasis on community & family life (high context)
Models of Communication
Cybernetic Model (Mass Model of Communication)
Dialectical Model
Cybernetic Model
*feedback is broken more often
Dialectical Model
Intercultural Relations
Cross Cultural Communication, Intercultural Communications (ICC)
Contrast Cultural Continuum (apply it)
Extension Transference (know examples)
Humans are differerent from animals by extensions,
ie: telephone extends voice
language extends experience in time and space
writing extends language
extensions are replacing nature, technology etc.
Action chain
steps for getting stuff done, beggining+middle+ending
highcontext cultures adhere more to action chains, more rooted in tradition
lowcontext cultures tend to break them, more changes happen
Verbal & nonverbal communication
Nonverbal: all cultures believe our interpretation of nonverbal over verbal ie: (happiness, anger, fear, disgust, suprise)
Locke & Confucius (apply models of communication)
Hoffsteaders 5 dimensions
Chamillion Complex
re-entry,culture shock in the long-term
Global Nomads & 3rd culture kids
to give up home culture, embrace host culture & be accepted fully
Perceptions, the dominant view is at the national level
Anthropological Approach:
1) take an active interest in other cultures
2) refrain from critcizing those cultures
Preoccupations become detrimental when they begin to marginalize people of other cultures as a whole
Naryan's 3 roles? :
most dominant version of history, significant dates,
from singular to plural history
To ascribe
predetermined roles by teacher (ie: all students are lazy)
To avow
minority gives its own definition, defend your identity (ie: students, we actually work hard)
Traditional euro-centric racism
the cookie cutter, WASP
Melting Pot assimilation
everyone has equal opportunity, democracy & capitalism Critique: Fail to look at structural constraints, melted away non-WASP traditions
Ethnic Nationalism
special groups should retain heritage, language, custom, should be proud they know who they are Ie: fruit salad (every fruit distinguishable, know their boundaries)
I/we/them --> fundamental differences & differences should be maintained
America is part of a larger global community, draw from a range of cultures, no one culture is dominant. Fails to acknowledge history of America with the other (I is no better than the other)
Centered Pluralism
America core = common language English, but coexists with range of languages
key institutions that govern us but acceptance other groups may have alternative way of government (mostly local, not federal)
Not purely capitalist, hybrids.
Not ethnic/racial equality, but movement towards it
Critique: Does not talk about how Am. has included/excluded people, (I & Other is separate but part of a whole)
skewed perspective of self and others
situational dialect
from hall: specific to marking your status as insider
has to be in context
n-time & p-time
kinesics, body movement
levels: 1) syncrony 2) specch 3) script
proxemics, amount of space between people
reading eyes, dilation of pupils
hof. 5 dimensions
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
High PD = respect their place, accept unequal distribution of power
Ie: centralized companies, strong hierarchies
Low PD = power is dispered, members view themselves as equals
Ie: organizations use teamwork, supervisors and employees are considered almost equals
2) Individualism (IDV)
High IDV= less focused on community, value on personal freedoms, respect privacy
Ie: rewards for hardwork, don't ask too much personal information, encourage debate and expression of ideas
Low IDV = stronger group cohesion, more responsibility for others wellbeing, loyalty
Ie: harmony very important, respect traditions and wisdom, suppress feelings and emotions to work in harmony
3) Masculinity (MAS)
High MAS = sticks with traditional gender roles
Low MAS = roles are blurred, men & women work equally
4)Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI)
High UAI = governed by rules and order to avoid ambiguous situations
Ie: structure, planned & prepared, high levels of emotion cause nervousness
Low UAI = discover your own truth, few rules, values differences
Ie: accepts change and risks, more focused on the longterm than day-to-day, no uneccesary structure
5) Long Term Orientation (LTO) value of longterm traditions and values
High LTO = Confucius, social obligations, avoiding "loss of face", family is basis of society, men have more authority, strong work ethic, reward perseverance, loyalty & commitment
Ie: Most Asian Countries
Low LTO = don't value tradition as much, promotion of equality, high creativity & individuaklism, treat others as you would like to be treated, self-actualization is sought
Hall's "Culture"
a way of life for people, the sum of their learned behavior, patterns, attitudes and material things.
focus on the phsyical, internalized message
the information is placed on the code or message
mtime & ptime
m time people do more things at once, not too worried about when to complete one take
p time does things one by one, linear