AP Euro- Chapter 25

Terms in this set (30)

- the period between 1870 and 1914 in which the policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations was very prevalent
- hegemony: leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others
- this constituted the economic, political, social and technological Westernization of the world
- missionaries played a big role in planting Christian communities in Africa and Asia during this part of the century
- Nations other than Britain (i.e. The United States, Japan) involved
- known for the mass inclusion of Western countries, the speed in which it occurred, and the extent to which it occurred over the globe
-- Catholicism was especially important in the Caribbean, Latin America, and French Canada (not American colonies so much --> Protestant influence less passionate yet kept other missionaries away)
- expansion not characterized by mercantilism
- Monroe doctrine
- come the nineteenth century, slavery was banned from Europe and a couple decades later the colonies
-- Britain worked to close down the slave trade of other nations
WHY WAS IT "NEW"?
- more about the imperial/political expansion of a non-Western nation rather than establishing places for people to live and work
-- formal empire control through PROTECTORATES (administration placed in a foreign state to oversee government without directly running it) and SPHERES OF INFLUENCE (a Western nation received special privileges in a nation without having direct political involvement)
-- ex. British crown rules India, British protectorate over Egypt, French rule in Vietnam, division of Africa into colonies of European powers, Japanese annexation of Taiwan, US annexing Hawaii and taking control of the Philippines
- more nations involved in a shorter amount of time
- immigration not part of this imperialism
- Europeans exhibited domination of their culture
- focused on Africa
- not many Westerners involved (mostly political administrators)
- short-lived empires
- until 1857, India loosely ruled by the Mughal Empire, but the real power lay with the nawabs or maharajahs (the local rulers)
- dominated through the East India Company
-- private company of merchants funded by Parliament
-- Parliament saw the company's potential and deployed armies there through its influence and paid its troops (which were Indians led by British officers) with taxes the Company collected
-- because India was mainly ruled by local rulers, Britain used the "divide and conquer" method
- difficult to dominate since consisted of a non-white population of various political allegiances, complex economic and social conditions, and non-Western religions like Hinduism and Islam
- Russia to threaten Britain by bringing military pressure on India
- 1813- Christian missionaries in India
-- thereafter, other Western thought brought to India
-- no more suttee (wives burning themselves at husbands' death)
- 1857- sepoy (Indian troops) rebellion within the British army due to Indian claims that bullets were rubbed with pork fat, offensive to the Hindu and Muslim religions religion (this was actually not true); frightened the Brits since within it was within their ranks
-- many Indians killed because of these uprisings
-- passed the Government of India Act (1858): transferred British authority in the territory from the East India Company to the British Crown
--- after the rebellions, the British tampered less with Indian religious life
--- worked closely with local princes who swore their allegiance to the crown
- 1877: Act of Parliament stated Queen Victoria Empress of India
- 1885: Hindus formed the Indian National Congress of modernizing life and liberalizing British policy
- 1887: Muslim League organized and eventually sought an independent Muslim state
- INDIA TO BECOME MORE NATIONALISTIC AFTER WWI DUE TO BRITISH FAILURES AND BECAUSE NEW EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES WERE PERSUED
- up to mid-twentieth century, economic motives
-- Hobson
--- wrote "Imperialism: A Study"
--- opposed British conquest of South Africa and the Boer War
--- against capitalist influence in these conquests
--- capitalists overproduced and had to sell in other nations --> these people forced imperialism that was not needed
- radical
-- Lenin
--- wrote "Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism"
--- capitalists saw monopolies in imperialism
--- in "less developed" countries capitalists could find higher profits, new markets, and more raw materials
--- wanted a revolution against capitalism
- Hobson and Lenin models not really followed in the history of the Western imperial advance
-- before 1875, investments went to undeveloped colonies
-- after 1875, investments went to more developed nations like the US and Canada
-- nations faced to rely on sources they did not control during the late nineteenth century depression
--- India main exception; however, not extremely profitable
-- hard for European nations to control cash balance
- REASONS TO ADVOCATE FOR NEW IMPERIALISM
-- some, like the French in Morocco, saw it as a "civilizing mission" in which a superior civilization helped the modernization of "backwards people"
-- some saw it as a tool of social policy (deflect public interest to a different idea) <-- Germany (unsuccessful since didn't have a great empire
-- some saw the investments would foster domestic reform <-- Britain
-- colonies would attract surplus European populations (didn't really happen -- most went to the US or Australia which their home nations did not control)
- OTHER MAIN MOTIVES
-- characteristic of a great European power (Britain example- French tried to follow, Russia with the Crimean war tried to follow, along with Italy and the short-lived Germany empire; US and Japan believed similarly)
-- territorial acquisitions as a result of the deterioration of the Ottoman empire (Eastern Question --> what to happen with Ottoman Empire lands- led to the outbreak of WWI and the turmoil in today's Middle East)
--- similar acquisitions of China happened didn't split the nation up into colonies
-- nations invest in "strategic interests" in the eastern Mediterranean and Africa
- Western governments would act on the spot to gain international power
-- led to greater response to the area in question
- "Scramble for Africa" late 1870s-1912
- European powers sought to maximize their strategic control of African territories, markets, and materials by dividing the continent
- EFFECTS
-- forcibly integrated Africans into modern industrial economy
-- new crop cultivation, market economies, social organizations, political structures, and religious allegiances formed
- GOALS
-- gain control through diplomacy or force
-- place Europeans directly in charge of the territories or compel local rules to allow European "advisors"
- FRANCE
-- Charles X pushed into Algeria in 1830
-- fertile coastal regions had potential
-- pushed into the Sahara and took control over nomadic Muslims
-- became an integral and extremely important part of France where citizens lived and elected representatives to Parliament
-- direct and full control by the French
-- 1881-1882: French control over Tunisia
-- 1901-1912: French control over Morocco
- ITALY
-- 1911-1912: seized Libya from Turkey
ITALIAN AND FRENCH ADVANCEMENTS IN AFRICA SHOW A WEAK OTTOMAN EMPIRE
- EGYPT
-- Khedives ruled it as a semi-independent project from the Ottoman empire
-- tried to modernize: building new harbors, roads, modern army, producing cash crops; borrowed from Europeans to do this
-- tried to expand into Sudan
-- build the suez canal (1869) <-- BLOW TO EGYPTIAN FINANCES
-- Europeans taking 50% of Egyptian revenue to repay their loans (Egyptians had to increase taxes to raise this revenue)
-- nationalist uprisings and rule of the Egyptian army in 1881
-- British take over in 1882
-- small number of British officials dominate administration
-- British wanted political and military stability
--- built naval base in Alexandria and a garrison in Cairo
--- established municipal governments that were responsible for taxation and expanded the cotton cultivation
-- while tax revenue increased, per capita declined and most were peasants who owned little land
-- 1920s: Muslim Brotherhood of Egyptian Islamic militants against Westerners
-- fight for control over Sudan: British versus Muslim forces led by Muhammad
-- Battle of Omdurman: British ultimately won with little loss due to their modern weapons while the Muslims lost many
-- Fashoda incident: British and French troops meet in the upper Nile and settle it peacefully; British get Egypt and support French in Morocco
- British India threatened Russian power in Asia
- EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY: Catherine the Great expanded control around the Baltic Sea and gained territories in southern Ukraine and influence in regions around the Black Sea; partitions of Poland also established Russian authority in the west
-- ruled an extremely diverse group of people who were not Russian by language, religion, or cultural heritage
-- wanted loyalty to the tsar
- LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY: Russians viewed these people as foreign
-- four staged theory of the Enlightenment distinguished sedentary (not moving) peoples as superior to hunters, gatherers, fisherman, and nomads
-- wanted to raise these people on the ladder of civilization
- NINETEENTH CENTURY: extended influence into Asia
-- Transcaucasus --> conquered this area to protect Christian Georgians and Armenians from Muslim rule
--- only modestly successful in subjugated Muslim people living in Caucasus regions --> had to fight brutal guerrilla war in these areas led by Iman Shamil
-- Central Asia: ruled over nomadic people like the Kazakhs who they forced onto collective farms in the 1930s
-- Middle Asia: took control of modern day Uzbekistan, Turkistan, and areas bordering Afghanistan which were mostly Muslim
--- established protectorates over the local rulers known as khans
--- sought to counter British control of India
- "The Great Game": Russian British rivalry over Middle Asia regions like Afghanistan
- Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907: gave both Britain and Russia influence in Persia
-- opened a way for the two countries to become allies in WWI
- missionary movement grew as a result of the rise of Evangelical Christianity
-- Evangelical Christianity: emphasized the authority of the Bible, the importance of a personal conversion experience, and the duty to spread the Gospel; also prepared for the Second Coming of Jesus
-- examples: Baptist Missionary Society, the London Missionary Society, the Edinburgh and Glasgow Missionary Societies, and the Church of Missionary Society
- Baptist William Carey's "An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen" made the argument for the missionary movement
- mid 1820s saw missionary growth and the other Protestant and Catholic missionary movement followed
- examples of German missionary societies: Leipzig Mission (India), The Rhenish Missionary Society (East Africa), Berlin Missionary Society (South Africa)
- Roman Catholic Missionary Advance reflected the resurgence of the Catholic Church in France
-- ex. The Society for the Propagation of the Faith --> largest French missionary society
-- worked all over the world
-- The White Fathers sent missionaries to Africa in 1868
- many missionaries were women due to their educational expertise
- missionaries learn local languages and therefore preserve these customs from extinction
- MISSIONARIES ALSO SAW THEMSELVES AS A SUPERIOR RACE
- MISSIONARY SUPPORT OF IMPERIAL MISSIONS
-- spread of Western commerce good for opening up new areas in the missionary enterprise
-- ex. Opium Wars --> government negotiated Christian missionaries in China
-- missionaries educated the people of the colonies (ex. Serampore College, Bishops College, Forman Christian College)
- MISSIONARIES AGAINST IMPERIAL MISSIONS
-- missionaries didn't always establish where their countries were and often employed missionaries from other countries
-- missionaries supported local cultures to increase their profits whereas colonial governors didn't care
-- colonial officials also concerned about conflicts with different denominations
-- missionaries supported a Western education whereas colonial officials didn't want that kind of competition
-- Christian vision of equality before law undermines colonial authority
- FRENCH MISSIONARIES
-- French severed ties with the Roman Catholic Chruch --> made complicated relationship
-- good since the missionaries taught the French language and spread the French culture
-- bad since missionaries undermined French colonial authority with religion
- nurturing the expansion of agriculture around the globe
- brought new cultivation in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and Algeria
-- cash crops (i.e. coffee, sugar, tea, rubber, jute, cotton, bananas, and cocoa) grew in these areas for exportation to Europe
- European botanists interested in plants abroad
- changes in taste (i.e. tea and coffee) and in technology (i.e. rubber) could create demands for these agricultural products
-- ex. gutta-percha, a latex used for insulting electrical wires, and palm oil, used in cooking, lubrication, and cosmetics
- The Royal Botanical Garden Kew in London and the Jardin des Plantes in Paris supported the advancement of agriculture
-- also allowed the general public to view a softer side to an empire (could look at foreign plants) and kept attention away from administrative difficulties (i.e. oppression of native people)
- empire part of the general progress of the age
- transformed economies
-- botanists worked on intercontinental transfers of plants to secure products for their home countries
-- ex. India to grow cotton, hemp, and tea and Algeria to grow wine grapes and fruit
-- British to introduce rubber trees to tropical colonies (i.e. Malaya and the Gold Coast colony in Africa) and the French and Dutch to introduce rubber in Indochina and the East Indies respectively
--- rubber in South America collapsed, and the economy of the Amazon consequently crahsed
- botanists seen as experts for the economic development in colonies when crops were no longer profitable
- planters associations also established in the colonies for research
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