Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Interphase
Terms in this set (22)
What is interphase?
-the period of growth that occurs between cell division
-begins when cytokinesis ends and ends when mitosis begins
During synthesis phase what happens?
-DNA Synthesis takes place
-makes copies of cellular DNA- 1 copy for each daughter cell
-once a cell enters S phase, it's going to divide
During first gap phase what happens?
-increases in size
-synthesizes new proteins and organelles needed for the newly formed daughter cells
During second gap phase what happens?
-organelles and molecules required for cell divisions are produced
What are the four main phases of mitosis?
What is the cell cycle?
-a series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
What happens during the cell cycle?
-a cell grows
-prepares for division
-divides to form two daughter cells, each of with begins the cycle again
What are the parts of interphase?
What is chromatin and what is it made of?
-Chromatin is the form of DNA in resting cells
-It's made of DNA and proteins
What are chromosomes and what is its function?
-it prevents tangling during cell division
What is a chromatid and what is it made up of?
-a strand of the chromosome
-two sister chromatids attached to a centromere create a chromosome
How many chromosomes does a human, a carrot, and a fruit fly have?
-fruit fly: 8
What is a diploid and what types of cells are diploids?
-2 sets of chromosomes
-they're all somatic
What is a haploid and what types of cells are haploids?
-1 set of chromosomes
What parts of the cell are visible under light microscopes during interphase?
What is prophase?
-first/longest phase of mitosis
-nuclear enveloped breaks down
What can you see happening during prophase?
-look to see if chromosomes condense and form visible bodies
-nuclear envelope breaks down
What are the two phases of cell division?
-mitosis (1st stage)
-cytokinesis (2nd stage)
What are the two limits to cell growth?
-surface area to volume ratio
What is DNA overload?
-when the cell gets larger there is more to control and it eventually becomes unmanageable
What is surface are to volume ratio?
-limit to cell growth
-the larger the cell, the more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane
-as the cell size increases, the ratio of the cell surface area to volume decreases
Do living things grow based on how large their cells are or how many cells they have?
-how many cells they have