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Unit 7 Bio Test: Part 1
Terms in this set (48)
Study of heredity and genes.
Studied how pneumonia affects bacteria; transformation in bacteria; DNA was passed down.
Changes in DNA of cell because of outside DNA being introduced.
Isolated DNA as the molecule that transmits heredity; Dissolved DNA and there was no genetic information passed down; on the other had he dissolved protein and there was still genetic information passed down.
Decided DNA definitely transmits heredity. They infected DNA and proteins with radioactive materials, one with sulfur and one with phosphorus, they were then able to track the DNA and proteins to see which passed on genes.
Adenine and Guanine (2 rings)
Focus on the Y. Cytosine and Thymine. Uracil in RNA.
A=T and C=G
Woman who used X-ray diffraction; was able to see that DNA was a helix.
Watson and Crick
Constructed 3D model of DNA.
No nucleus; single loop of DNA; small pieces of DNA called plasmids.
Two linear chromosomes; has a nucleus with DNA in non-looped chromosomes.
Unwound DNA; usually in this when in interphase.
Protein that help the DNA wrap; wraps around his tones.
In this during cell division.
Histone protein DNA complex.
Carries info about the protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
tRNA (transfer RNA)
Transfer amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
Makes up the structure of a ribosome.
Unzips DNA by separating the hydrogen bond.
Primes DNA strands for replication.
Adds correct nucleotides to DNA strand.
Creates sugar phosphate bones; glues DNA back together.
The production of proteins in the cell; proteins are made on the ribosome, whether on the endoplasmic reticulum or in the cytoplasm.
Proteins ship outside the cell.
Proteins will be used internally.
The process of making a messenger RNA from the DNA; this happens in the nucleus.
Process of making a polypeptide from the code on the mRNA; this happens on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm or rough ER.
Tells enzymes where to start; specific sequence of DNA nucleotides that signal to start.
Extra nucleotides that don't code for anything and can be removed.
Usable pieces of the gene; they are kept after the gene is transcribed and the introns are removed.
The unique for the 20 amino acids naturally occurring in the human body.
A 3-base unit on the mRNA that codes for a particular amino acid.
Signals the start of the gene; is always AUG.
Signals the end of translation and the completion of a protein.
A change in genetic material; can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful.
The change of just one base.
The mutation doesn't result in the change of an amino acid sequence.
The mutation results in a change in a single amino acid in the sequence.
The mutation results in a early STOP codon.
The change is a complete reversal of a section of the DNA, which can result in massive problems for the gene.
When a section of a gene or chromosome moves to another part of the DNA; creates massive cellular problems.
results from insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs in the coding region of the gene. Each of the codons are different due to shift in the reading frame.
Groups of genes that control gene expression and gene regulation.
Control position and location of different parts of the body.
Cells talking to each other.
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