77 terms


Acid/bases (pH)
is a compound that forms hydrogen ions H+ in solution; a solution with pH of less than 7
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
aerobic is process that requires oxygen; anaerobic is the process
Atom charges
negative, positive, and neutral
ATP- i
s the cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions H+ to pass through it
Carbohydrates and lipids uses
is the compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; the type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body.
Cell membrane composition
is the thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Chemical and physical changes
chemical changes is the process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals; physical changes is the process when a physical feature changes.
Chromosome theory of inheritance
genes are located on the chromosome and have a locus number and a gene name
Chromosomes and genes
are threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that passed from one generation to the next; genes are sequence of DNA that codes for protein and thus determines a trait, and it is a factor that passed from parent to offspring
are not protein and they do not change
Convert within the metric system
based on number 10's
not having enough water for your body
Difference between gametes and regular cells
gametes are sex cells and regular cells are cells that make up our body not just ones that help reproduce
Difference between sexual and asexual reproduction
asexual is process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that re genetically identical to parent, and sexual is a type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form a first cell of a new organism.
is the process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to than where they are less concentrated.
DNA and mRNA sequences (complementary bases)
DNA bases are ATGC and mRNA is AUGC
DNA and RNA- DNA gives you your traits, and RNA has 3 types
Messenger, transfer, and ribosomal
DNA composition
proteins in ribosomes
Effect of environment on cell growth
Fermentation products
oxygen, energy, and ATP
Food chains
light dependent and independent make food and oxygen
Four most common elements found in living things
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, Water
Function of chlorophyll
has green pigment, gives color to leaves on trees and plants
Genetic engineering
incline bacteria
Heterozygous / homozygous
heterozygous means they are different, homo means they are the same
Hypertonic / hypotonic solution
hypertonic means when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes, hypotonic means when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
Inheritance of mutations
is the change in the genetic material of a cell
are the micrograph of the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in parts, arranged in order of decreasing size.
Label parts of the cell
Label parts of the microscope
Law of dominance
when one allele determines the expression of a trait
Law of segregation
when 2 alleles that control a trait separate into gametes
Lipid composition
is a macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils and waxes.
Magnification/resolution (in regards to an electron microscope)
the ability to see fine detail in 2 items
the amount the item is in kilograms
is a chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis
a sperm gives off a X or Y in sexual reproduction and an egg gives off and X
-one benfits and the other gets hurt
Phenotype / genotype-
is the children or adult type in a form just as ¼ AB: ½ OO: ¼ AA
Photosynthesis and respiration
photosynthesis takes in energy to build and respiration gives out energy
a number to another number out of a total number
Product rule
comes from the reactions
Ratio of surface area to volume in cell growth
Reactants and products
reactants on the left side products on the right side
Reduction of chromosome numbers during meiosis
similar to mitosis, it makes another chromosome from itself
coping itself to make another
Scanning tunneling microscope
shows it has 3D it is high resolution
Scientific method
observe, form problem, form hypothesis, do experiment, results, analyze, and form conclusion
Sister chromatids
are the chromosome combine
Stages of mitosis events
prophase, anaphase, metaphase, Telophase
gene untwist and RNA gets copy and it twist back up with copy
makes protein and mRNA code carries it down
What happens when chemical bonds are broken
the bond stops and the chain reaction stops as well
What happens when you move the slide on the stage of a microscope
you can see it better or worse and you get a clearer vision
Chromosome theory of inheritance
Walter Suttons
Jumping (mobile) genes in Indian corn
Barbra McClintock
Cure for rabies
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
Sex chromosomes
Nettie Stevens
Principles of genetics
Gregor Mendel
Robert Hooke invented the name for it; Robert Brown discovered cell nucleus
Effects of DDT and wrote Silent Spring
Double-helix model of the DNA molecule- Watson and Crick
the power house, has 2 layers
Golgi body
protein is delivered
water in the cell between the nucleus and cell membrane
chromatin or chromosome
makes protein and RNA
Endoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER and rough ER stores enzymes and protein
storage tank full of water and materials
traps light for photosynthesis
cleans up whatever gets invaded and nasty
study of organism
the study of how living things and their environment interact with one another.
The study of cells
he study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
the bodily structure of animals and plants
the study of genes