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What are the three major functions of teeth?

Mastication, Esthetics, Phonetics


The hard and soft supporting tissues of a tooth

What are the characteristics of the most primitive teeth?

Conical in shape and composed of one cone or lobe; homodont and can only move their jaw up and down


Three-lobed/cusped tooth


A primary division of the tooth

Permanent Anterior Teeth Lobes

3 labial: Mesiolabial, Middle Labial, Distolabial and 1 Cingulum Lobe: Lingual Lobe

Permanent Posterior Teeth Lobes

3 Buccal: Mesiobuccal, Middle Buccal, Distobuccal and 1 Lingual: Lingual

Permanent Maxillary Molar Lobes

2 Buccal: Mesiobuccal, Distobuccal and 2 Lingual: Mesiolingual, Distolingual

Permanent Mandibular First Molar Lobes

5 lobes named for the cusps with the addition of the distal lobe

Curve of Spee

Curves upwards from anterior to posterior

Curve of Wilson

The medio-lateral curve of the occlusal plane of posterior teeth

Maxillary Anterior Incisor Root Inclination


Maxillary Canine Root Inclination


Maxillary Molar Root Inclination


Mandibular Anterior Incisor Root Inclination


Mandibular Premolar Root Inclination

1PM Distolingual; 2 PM Distobuccal

Mandibular Molar Root Inclination


What is the shape of the teeth from the faciolingual direction?

Trapezoidal with the small on the bottom and big on top

What is the shape of the anterior teeth from the proximal view?


What is the shape of the Maxillary posterior teeth from the proximal view?

Trapezoidal with the big on the bottom and the small on top

What is the shape of the mandibular posterior teeth from the proximal view?



The open space between the proximal surfaces of two adjacent teeth in the same arch and are names according to their location; dependent on interproximal spaces

Embrasure Naming

From the facial/lingual view: Incisal/Occlusal, Cervical/Gingival; From the Incisal/Occlusal view: Labial/Buccal, Lingual

What are the 2 physiological purposes for proper embrasure?

To serve as a spillway for food and an integral part of the self-cleaning of teeth

General Rules for Embrasure: Facial/Lingual Aspect

Incisal/Occlusal and Cervical/Gingival embrasures increase in size toward posterior

Rules for Embrasure: Incisal Aspect

Labial/Lingual embrasures are equal in size to anterior

Rules for Embrasure: Occlusal Aspect

Lingual embrasure is larger than buccal embrasure in posterior

Height of Contour/Crest of Curvature

The greatest area of contour inciso(occluso) cervically on the facial and lingual surfaces

Heights of Contour: Facial

Located in cervical third

Heights of Contour: Anterior Lingual

Located in the cervical third

Heights of Contour: Posterior

Located in the occlusal third

Gingival Line/Margin/Crest

The imaginary line which marks the level of termination of the nonattached soft tissue surrounding the tooth

Epithelial Attachment

The actual attachment of the soft tissue of the mouth to the tooth

Depth of Curvature

Related to the widths and lengths of the crown and the location of the contact areas proximally

Rule for Cervical Line Contours

The facial/lingual CEJ curves apically and the mesial/distal CEJ toward incisal

Rule for Direction of Curvature

Greater on the mesial as compared to the distal

Rule for Depth of Curvature

Lines on adjacent proximal surfaces have the same depth of curvature; Greatest on central incisors and decreases posteriorly

Marginal Ridge Rule

The marginal ridge height of adjacent teeth should be the same; The shape should create a small occlusal/incisal embrasure

Central Groove Rule

The central grooves should form a continuous line on posterior teeth

Occlusal Anatomy

The groove and ridge pattern on the masticating surface

Anterior/Premolar Roots

Single root

Maxillary Molar Roots

Three roots

Mandibular Molar Roots

Two roots

Which tooth has the strongest root?

The canine

What is the most highly developed tooth?

Four or more lobes and only belong to primates

Sphere of Monson

3D combination of the Curve of Spee and Curve of Wilson

Mandibular Canine Root Inclination


Maxillary Premolar Root Inclination


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