189 terms

Child Growth and Dev. Ch. 14-16 plus some comprehensive

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Terms in this set (...)

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Super Ego
years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that end childhood, producing a person of adult shape and size and sexuality.
Puberty
First period signaling that she has begun ovulation. Often irregular for years
Menarche
First ejaculation signals sperm production. Can occur during sleep or with stimulation
Spermarche
Organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physical function
Hormone
Gland in brain that responds to signal from hypothalamus by producing hormones
Pituitary
2 glands located above kidneys that produce hormones-like the stress hormone
Adrenal glands
Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis-sequence of h. Production starts with hypothalamus then pituitary and then adrenal glands.
HPA
Sex glands
Gonads
Hypothalamus pituitary gonads axis
HPG
Sex hormone. Chief estrogen. More of this than males have females
Estradiol
Sex hormone. Best of androgens. Way more in males than females
Testosterone
Day night cycle of biological activity that occurs ever 24 hrs.
Circadian rhythm
Long term upward or downward direction of a certain set of statistical measurements as opposed to shorter cyclical variation. Ex-over the last 2 centuries because of better nutrition and medical care, children tend to reach adult height earlier and their adult height has increased
Secular Trend
Hormone that affects appetite and is believed to effect the onset of puberty. Increases during childhood and peaks at 12.
Leptin
How you think your body looks
Body Image
Eating disorder. Self starvation. Can be fatal.
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder. Binge eating and then puking or laxatives
Bulimia Nervosa
Sudden rapid physical growth in puberty weight precedes height and growth of limbs precedes growth of torso
Growth spurt
Parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, includes vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, penis
Primary sex characteristics
Physical traits not directly involved in reproduction but shows maturity like beards or boobs.
Secondary sex characteristics
Any erotic activity arouses an adult and confuses or shames a child whether or not victim protests and whether or not genital contact is involved.
Child sexual abuse
Sexually
Transmitted
Disease
Spread by sexual conduct, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes and chalmydia and HIV.
STI
Adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to exclusion of others
Adolescent egocentrism
Aspect of adolescent ego centrism characterized by an adolescents belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique more wonderful or awful than anything else
Personal fable
Cannot be overcomed or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal such as unprotected sex, drug abuse and high speed driving
invincibility fable
Everyone is watching. Makes teenagers very self conscious.
imaginary audience
Piagets theory-the fourth and final stage of cog. Development. More logical systemic thinking, ability to understand and systemically manipulate abstract concepts
formal operational thought
reasoning that include prepositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality
hypothetical thought
reasoning from a general statement, premise or principle through logical steps to figure out specifics. Called top-down reasoning
Deductive reasoning
reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion. bottom-up reasoning
Inductive reasoning
the mistaken belief that money, time, or effort that cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor then more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal the goal. Ex-spending more money on a car that is a lemon
sunk cost fallacy
common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or charateristics in making decisions. Ex- person may bet on the lottery without considering the odds that their number will be selected.
base rate neglect
notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analysis of stimuli.
dual-process model
thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions
intuitive thought
thought that results from analysis such as systemic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends on logic and rationality.
analytical thought
bullying where one person spreads insults or rumor about another by means of emails, text or videos.
cyberbullying
addictive form of self mutilation that is prevalent among adolescent girls and correlates with depression and rug abuse.
Cutting
anything after primary school and before tertiary school
Secondary education
grades between elementary and high school. Usually begins with grade 6 and ends with grade 8.
Middle School
sees ability as innate, a fixed quantity at birth. Effort does not enhance achievement.
entity approach to intelligence
intelligence can be increased by effort. Can master whatever they seek to learn.
incremental approach to intelligence
an evaluation that is critical in determining success of failure
high stakes test
Program for international student assessment.
designed to measure the kind of cognition needed in adult life. Taken by 15 YO in 50 nations.
PISA
5th stage in Erikson's development.
Primary task of adolescence is finding one own identity.
Identity v. role confusion
Erikson's term for the attainment of identity/ the point when a person understands that they are individual
Identity achievement
a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what their identity is. Also called identity or role confusion
role confusion
Erikson term. Premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents or societys roles and values wholesale, without question or analysis
foreclosure
adolescent choice of socially acceptable way to postpone making identity achievement decisions. Ex.- going to college
moratorium
person's acceptance of their roles and behaviors that society associates with biological categories of male and female
gender identity
1. Religious
2. Political
3. Vocational
4. Sexual
Four areas of Identity Formation
petty arguing usually repeated and on going
bickering
parents' ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where and with whom.
parental monitoring
encouragement from one's friends or contemporaries to conform in behavior or dress and attitude. usually considered negative like when friends encourage another friend to defy adults.
peer pressure
destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms.
deviancy training
a term that refers ti whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted tithes of the same sex, opposite sex or both
sexual orientation
feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that lasts two weeks or more
clinical depression
repeatedly talking and thinking about past experiences; can contribute to depression
rumination
thinking about suicide usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones
suicidal ideation
any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death. also called attempt at suicide and failed suicide
parasuicide
several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period of time
cluster suicides
person who's criminal activity usually begins in early ado. snd continues throughout life; a career criminal.
life course persistent offender
person who's criminal activity stops by age 21
adolescence limited offender
the idea that each generation forgets what the previous generation learned. Ex- harm from drugs
generational forgetting
hypothalamus.
The hormonal signal to begin puberty is regulated by the
gonads
Which of the following is another name for the sex glands?
20
During adolescence, testosterone in boys may rise as high as about _____ times the prepubescent level.
eveningness
Some people, especially males, are naturally more alert in the evening than in the morning. This is a genetic trait called:
genetics
A major influence on the age of the onset of menarche is:
have led to both weight gain and early maturation.
Researchers believe that hormones and environmental chemicals in the food supply:
tend to have lower self esteem than late maturing girls
Early-maturing girls
SOS
According to the text, American high- school students of _____ heritage are advanced in puberty when compared to other ethnic groups of students.
iron
Menstruation depletes a woman's body of:
depression and thoughts of suicide
For 10-year-old girls and 15-year-old boys, body dissatisfaction increased:
Between 1 and 3 percent
What percentage of women in the United States in 2005 were clinically bulimic during early adulthood?
anorexia nervosa
What disorder is characterized by severe calorie restriction?
torso
The last part(s) of the adolescent body to be fully formed is (are) the:
twice the body fat percentage of her 17 year old male classmate
The average 17-year-old girl has:
culture
What has the greatest influence on a person's choice for his or her first sexual partner?
the highest of all developed nations
The overall rate of teen births in the United States is:
SOS
Su Lee, a teenager, questions her parents as to why she cannot stay out late at night. Which of the following statement
chylamydia
What is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection?
SOS
As of 2010, about what percentage of sexually active American high school students reported using a condom during their most recent sexual encounter?
hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal/gonads
Puberty begins when____ signals the____ to signal the _______
testes
Primary source of sex hormones in males
ovaries
Primary source of sex hormones in females
estrogen
primary female hormone
testosterone
primary male hormone
adrenal
Secondary sex gland
the thinking that leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
Adolescent egocentrism refers to:
12
At which of the following ages would you expect acute self-consciousness to be at its highest?
invincibility fable
Teens are likely to experiment with drugs and have unprotected sex because of:
the imaginary audience.
Teens often believe that they are at center stage and that others are intensely interested in them because of:
the personal fable.
Sixteen-year-old Yung Sun has been dating Marcus for two months. She believes that no one has ever been in love as much as she is in love with Marcus. She feels insulted whenever her parents tell her that the relationship probably will not last. Yung Sun's feelings are an example of:
intuitive
What type of thought begins with a prior belief, past experience, or common assumption, rather than a logical premise?
B.
most adolescents believed in heaven, hell, and angels.
According to a 2005 study on teens and religion,:
more religious
In one study, adolescents report becoming ________ as they get older.
most teens can use logic but they do not.
In a study of adolescent thinking, Paul Klaczynski concluded that:
A.
dual-process model.
The notion that two networks exist within the brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, describes the:
D.
More than 90 percent of American teens use the Internet daily.
Which of the following statements is true, according to your text?
all of them were correct
Jay is a 16-year-old gay male living in rural Alaska. The Internet could be a way that Jay:
all correct
Research on adolescents who play video games found that the use:
relational
Which type of bullying is particularly likely to be accelerated through the use of technology?
all correct
Bethany has been engaging in self-injurious behavior, mostly cutting herself on her stomach and thighs. She could use the Internet to:
Completing high school is related to improved health in every nation and across socio-economic levels.
which of the following is true?
SOS
According to the text, the structure of middle school does not seem to take into account adolescents':
Carlos, who had been in a middle school where he and other Latinos were in the majority, and now is at a high school where Latinos are in the minority.
According to statistical averages, which of the following students would be particularly at risk of experiencing overwhelming stress during the transition to a new school?
a single test to determine success or failure.
In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given:
SOS
The United States ranked in the _________ out of 44 nations in the math category on the 2009 PISA.
identity versus role confusion.
Erik Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development is called:
identity diffusion
It is typical for an adolescent experiencing _____ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism
moratorium
Tenisha's decision to join the army and "see the world" before she settles on her career illustrates the concept of:
political
Erik Erikson described the four aspects of identity as the religious, the sexual, the vocational, and the:
reflect the beliefs of her parents.
Fifteen-year-old Greta's parents are active in the Republican party. Based on generalized statistics, Greta's political beliefs will most likely:
gender identity.
Eighteen-year-old Gary is struggling because he would love to be a stay-at-home dad in the future, because he loves children and wants his own family. However, he believes that this is not an option for him because he is male. This belief reflects:
usually diminishes when the child develops emotional maturity
Bickering between adolescents and their parents:
social construction.
Many researchers believe that so-called teenage rebellion is not developmentally universal, but rather the result of cultural expectations and assumptions. They call the concept of "teenage rebellion" a:
derives from a warm connection.
According to the text, an important component of healthy parental monitoring:
deviancy training.
Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms is referred to as:
teens were more willing to take chances when playing with peers than were the adults.
The text describes an experiment comparing teens' and emerging adults' risk behaviors when playing the video driving game Chicken with and without their peers. The study revealed that:
social trouble
According to the text, early and exclusive romance often signifies _____, especially for girls.
gender dysphoria.
According to a new diagnosis added to the DSM-5, individuals who feel distress because they are in "the wrong body" may have:
more common in females than in males.
Serious depression among adolescents is:
parasuicide.
Any deliberate action of self-harm that could have been lethal but was not is referred to as:
Virtually all adolescents have broken the law.
Which of the following statements is true about adolescent criminal activity?
adolescence-limited offender.
A teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n):
more; more
With some exceptions, adolescent boys use ________ drugs, and use them ________ often, than girls do:
alcohol.
The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is:
All of these answers are correct.
The category "psychoactive drugs" refers to:
3-5
Puberty usually last ___ years
True
In both boys and girls, early puberty correlates with early sexual activity
leptin
The hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty is:
Result in earlier puberty.
Living in a stressful environment has been found to:
Anxiety and depression.
For boys, late puberty correlates with:
Half
About ___ of adult bone mass is acquired between the ages of 10 and 20.
Binging and purging at least once a week for three months; an uncontrollable urge to overeat; and a sense of self tied to body weight and shape.
Which of the following is a symptom of bulimic nervosa?
Maturation of the testes.
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
Fully developed women have some natural biological defenses against STIs.
Teenage girls are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections than mature women are because:
Onset of puberty is earlier; amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex does; and the complexities of emotional restraints are beyond them.
Why do emotions rule behavior for many teens?
puberty
The years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood is called:
hormone
An organize chemical substance produced in the body and conveyed via the bloodstream is called a:
Estradiol; testosterone.
At adolescence, the gonads increase the production of sex hormones: ___ in girls and ___ in boys.
Precocious puberty.
Sexual development before age 8 is referred to as:
Stress increases the hormones that start puberty.
In what way does stress affect puberty?
intake of necessary vitamins and minerals because:
Healthy food cost more; unhealthy foods are more desirable; and they eat from vending machines in schools.
According to the text, adolescents are deficient in their
A significantly low body weight (BMI of 17 or less)
Which of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa?
A growth spurt.
The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty is referred to as:
Triple; double.
During adolescence, the lungs will ___ in weight and the heart will __ in size.
Spontaneous abortion.
What complication is associated with teen pregnancy?
The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does.
Which statement concerning a teenager's brain growth is true?
8
estradiol in girls may rise as high as about ___ times the childhood level.
Samoan.
According to the text, American high-school students of ___ heritage are advanced in puberty when compared to other ethnic groups of students in California.
Her synaptic growth enhances moral development.
Su Lee, a teenager, questions her parents as to why she cannot stray out late at night. Which of the following statements is likely true of Su Lee's brain development?
78
As of 2010, about what percentage of sexually active American high school students reported using a condom during their most recent sexual encounter?
Formal operational thought.
Randy is in the stage of ___ if his thinking is no longer dependent on concrete experiences.
Base rate neglect.
Marrisa decided to drive her care to Las Vegas rather than fly after reading a story about a plane crash. This common fallacy is called:
Most adolescents feel close to God.
When it comes to religion:
Grades 7 through 12.
"Secondary Education" refers to:
The lack of connection to teachers.
Developmentalists suspect that one reason for the slowdown in academic achievement that is seen in middle schools is:
Having someone to blame
The finding of a study of middle school students in Los Angeles suggest that ___ makes students feel safer and less lonely.
They can be used as tools for learning.
Which of the following statements about the use of the Internet and other forms of technology is true?
David Elkind
Which theorist first described adolescent egocentrism?
The imaginary audience.
Thirteen-year-old Mark refuses to go to school because he has a pimple. He is convinced that everyone will make fun of him. Mark's behavior is an example of:
If
The individual who engages in hypothetical thought clearly demonstrates an understanding of the word:
Inductive reasoning.
Concluding that a four-legged furry animal that wags its tail when it is happy and that likes to fetch sticks is a dog would be an example of:
Sunk cost fallacy.
"Throwing good money after bad" is a phrase often used when we put more and more money into something that really was not worth it in the first place. Which of the following best explains why we often do not choose to "cut our losses"?
Base rate neglect.
A common fallacy in which a person ignores statistical information about the frequency of a phenomenon and instead makes an emotionally based decision is called:
16
According to a study by Smith and Denton (2005), what percentage of adolescents report that they are not religious?
stress
Vern just entered high school this year. Recently he has been skipping a lot of classes and is starting to vandalize property at night with his friends. These behaviors could be a sign that Vern is experiencing:
Separates young from old.
Today's "digital divide":
more dropouts
High-stakes testing as a requirement for high school graduation potentially results in:
Who am I?
During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question:
Reconsider the goals and values set by parents and culture, accepting some and rejecting other
The ultimate goal in resolving the crisis of identity achievement is to:
Foreclosure.
A person who adopts his or her parents' values without question or analysis is said to be in:
Political.
Erikson described four aspects of identity as being the religious, the sexual, the vocational, and the:
They feel valued by their communities.
Teens are less likely to abuse drugs, leave school, and take unnecessary risks when:
Teens were more willing to take chances when playing with peers than were the adults.
An experiment comparing teens' and emerging adults' risk behaviors when playing a video driving game with and without their peers revealed that:
Culture, early maturity, peer pressure.
Adolescent sexual behavior is strongly influenced by:
Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents but completed suicides are not.
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?
There is more effective use of antidepressant.
One reason why adolescent suicides have decreased since 1990 may be that:
Alcohol, tobacco, drugs.
The category "psychoactive drugs" refers to:
More; more
With some exceptions, adolescent boys use ____ drugs, and use them ______ often, than girls do.
alcohol
The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is:
experience in middle school
Whether adolescents stay in school or drop out is strongly inflected by:
recognize alternative possibilities
Compared to preadolescents;adolescents' thinking about science is more likely to:
the cognition of the person at the computer keyboard
With both cyberbullying and cutting, according to the textbook, the danger lies in:
become better at knowing when analysis is needed
As adolescents gain experience in making decisions and thinking things through, they:
decreased for all ethnic groups
Between 1991 and 2009, rates of sexual experience of high school students in the US have:
The relationship is reciprocal- hormones can trigger emotions but emotions can trigger hormones as well.
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between hormones and emotions?