Which changes in the cardiovascular system are related to the aging process?
respiratory & digestive systems
The fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation because of two organ systems that are non-functional. These organ systems are the what?
Which arteries does NOT directly branch from the abdominal aorta?
The direct continuation of the brachial artery is the ________ artery.
What is the main vein draining blood from the heart tissue?
What does the external jugular veins empty into?
What is the formation of new blood vessels referred to?
Where is blood flow the slowest?
B) arteries are larger in diameter than veins- NOT TRUE
Which of the following is NOT true: A) arteries are stronger than veins. B) arteries are larger in diameter than veins. C) veins have valves, most arteries do not. D) arteries have higher blood pressure than veins.
constriction of the precapillary sphincter of the arterioles
What controls blood flow through a particular tissue area?
changes in local muscle tissue and thoracic pressure
How is blood mainly moved through the veins?
right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk
Give the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the superior and inferior vena cavae to the lungs.
arteriole end of the capillaries
Where do gases and nutrients leave the blood?
the pulmonary circuit
What is blood flow from the heart to the lungs called?
What is it when the arteries are "hardened" by deposits within the wall?
c) unstable plaque has a low lipid content
Which of the following is not true concerning atherosclerosis? A) stable plaque has a low lipid content B) stable plaque doesn't grow much C) unstable plaque has a low lipid content D) unstable plaque is more likely to rupture than stable plaque E) unstable plaque often contains a large number of macrophages
E) all are less common in the elderly
Which of the following is more common in the elderly? A) CAD B) CHF C) atherosclerosis D) decreased blood flow to the brain E) all are less common in the elderly
What is chronically high blood pressure called?
A) lower your levels of potassium, calcium & magnesium
Which of the following will not help prevent hypertension or lower blood pressure? A) lower your levels of potassium, calcium and magnesium B) don't smoke C) reduce intake of sodium D) exercise E) reduce or manage stress
What is a thin, weakened section of an artery or vein that bulges out is called?
True or False: Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction
True or False: All veins carry blood low in oxygen.
True or False: Leaky valves cause varicose veins.
True or False: Blood flow refers to the amount of blood that passes through a blood vessel in a given period of time.
True or False:Blood always flows from regions of lower blood concentration to regions of higher blood concentration.
True or False: Epinephrine has no effect on blood pressure.
True or False: Vascular resistance refers to the resistance to blood flow in the peripheral circulation.
True or False: Blood volume only occasionally changes blood pressure.
True or False: The vasomotor center is located in the hypothalamus.
True or False: Parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve causes a decrease in heart rate.
True or False: Exercise can cause an increase in blood pressure.
True or False: Muscle tissue is not dependent on autoregulation of blood flow.
True or False: Velocity of blood flow depends on the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel.
True or False: Skeletal muscle contractions help to return venous blood.
True or False: Bradycardia indicates a rapid heart rate.
True or False: Arteries and veins have several layers including two layers of connective tissue, a layer of smooth muscle and a smooth endothelium lining for efficient blood flow and to prevent clotting. The muscle lining is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins.
True or False: There isn't enough blood to go around to all the tissues so the diameter of the arteries and arterioles as well as the constriction of the precapillary sphincters helps determine where blood should go.
True or False: Heart rate is regulated by the cardiac center in the hypothalamus and chemoreceptors that detect oxygen levels in the blood.
True or False: The major factor that moves blood through the body is pressure differences in the blood vessels between when it leaves the heart and as it returns.
True or False: Systolic pressure is the higher number because it is the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting. Diastolic pressure is lower but it is a constant pressure, because the ventricles are relaxed.
True or False: Recently, researchers have discovered that it is impossible to reverse the plaque damage of atherosclerosis.
True or False: Regular exercise and stress management can help decrease the plaque buildup associated with atherosclerosis.
True or False: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart disease and death in older Americans.
True or False: Under the new guidelines, the prehypertension classification now contains individuals that would previously have been considered normal. This means the systolic and diastolic readings for this category are lower than in the past.
True or False: Orthostatic hypotension is a large decrease in blood pressure caused by a person standing up.
Arterioles within a tissue or organ branch into countless microscopic vessels called ____.
The movement of water and solutes out of capillaries into the interstitial fluid is called _____.
The movement of water and solutes from the interstitial fluid into the capillaries is called _____.
An increase in the size of a blood vessel lumen is referred to as ____.
The blood flow in capillaries is regulated by smooth muscle fibers called the ____.
Chemoreceptors that are sensitive to carbon dioxide levels are found in the carotid and ____ bodies.
Veins that lose their elasticity and become stretched and flabby are called ______ veins.
When hydrostatic pressure in capillaries is higher than osmotic pressure, ____ occurs.
As blood flows from the heart to arteries to arterioles to capillaries, its velocity ____.
The alternate expansion and recoiling of an artery with each contraction of the left ventricle is called ____.
The instrument used to measure blood pressure is called ____.
Sweating during shock is due to ____ stimulation.
The section between the diaphragm and the common iliac arteries is referred to as the ____.
The blood vessel emerging from the right ventricle is the ____.
What is a small artery called?
Blood flow from the left ventricle to the right atrium is the ____ circulation.
common iliac arteries
The abdominal aorta branches into the ____.
All veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior vena cava or the ____.
The cerebral circulation is a subdivision of the ____ circulation.
The two pumps which help to return the blood to the heart are the skeletal muscle pump and the ____ pump.
The hormone released by cells of the kidneys in response to decreased blood volume or flow is _____.
What refers to a rapid heart beat?
What indicates a slow heart beat?
What is low blood pressure?
What is high blood pressure?
What is an inflammation of an artery?
What is an inflammation of a vein?
What is the inflammation of a vein w/ clot formation?
What is the obstruction of a blood vessel lumen?
What is a temporary cessation of consciousness?
1. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. 2. An increase in blood volume also increases blood pressure. 3. Peripheral resistance to blood flow influences blood pressure. Arterioles control peripheral resistance - and therefore blood pressure - by changing their diameters.
Describe the factors that effect blood pressure.
1. Pumping action of the heart. 2. Velocity of blood flow. 3. Skeletal muscle contractions. 4. Valves in the veins. 5. Breathing
Name the factors that help venous return to the heart.
-Left ventricle - ascending aorta - arch of the aorta - descending aorta - thoracic aorta - abdominal aorta - organs and tissues - inferior and superior vena cava - right atrium.