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Chapter 2: Evolution of Clinical Psychology
Terms in this set (34)
Lived in England.
appalled by the deplorable conditions in "asylums" where mentally ill lived.
devoted much of his life to improving treatment.
establishes The York Retreat, a mental institution based on "moral treatment"
Lived in France.
Advocated for more humane and compassionate treatment of the mentally ill.
Introduced the ideas of a case history, treatment notes, and illness classification, indicating care about their well-being.
Connecticut; At that time, there were very few hospitals for the mentally ill and burden fell on family; used Pinel's efforts as model; opened humane treatment centers in US
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada.
succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill.
served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Who founded the first scholarly clinical psychology journal?
Lightner Witmer in 1907, called The Psychological Clinic
Who is considered a pioneer of diagnosis?
Emil Kraepelin (1855 - 1926)
What did Emil Kraepelin do?
Coined some of the earlies terms to categorize mental illness.
In 1883, he published a list of mental disorders that was thorough it was adopted throughout the world and lasted for decades and set the stage for the DSM.
first to systematically study the effects of drugs on various cognitive and behavioral functions.
Explain the DSM
Published by the American Psychiatric Association, originally in 1952.
When was the most drastic change in the DSM?
between DSM 2 and DSM 3, larger included more disorders, specific diagnostic criteria, multi-axial system (biopsychosocial)
Trend for changes to the DSM?
consistent trend of expanding to include more disorders
"scientific discovery" or "social invention"?
which disorders are under consideration for the DSM?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, minor depressive disorder, recurrent brief depressive disorder.
early debates about definition of intelligence
definition of intelligence focused on "g" (a single general intelligence vs. "s" (specific intelligences)
Alfred Binet's (1905) Intelligence Test became..
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which is widely used today.
Binet's test was created to
provide children who were behind in completing tasks for their age group's special education.
David Wechsler Revisions
developer of WAIS (young to adults) and WISC (children) intelligence tests
Published the Wechsler-Bellevue in 1939, designed for adults.
Later created tests for school-age and preschool children.
one of the first test to emerge, a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
narrative projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures
which tests followed projectives?
standardized tests of personality that can be scored objectively and that are based on a research foundation, can be completed via scantron.
paper and pencil, self report, and more scientifically sound.
Objective tests like the MMPI
comprehensive personality test measuring various pathologies designed to detect abnormal behavior or thinking patterns.
Revised and restandardized. designed to detect abnormal behavior or thinking patterns in personality
478 question version for the MMPI-2 suitable for ages 14-18.
which is the most popular objective measure of personality?
MMPI, consists of 567 items in which people respond with "true" "false" or "cannot say"
which is the most common activity of clinical psychologists today?
Psychotherapy, but before 1940s and 1950s, it was not a significant professional activity.
what created a demand for psychotherapy?
WW2 created a demand for treatment of psychologically affected soldiers.
timeline of therapies since 1950s
4. Family Therapy
most recently, which therapy has risen to become the most widely endorsed singular orientation?
In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s,
Therapy approaches proliferated
More minorities entered the field
Psy. D./Vail model programs emerged
In the 1980s,
Psychotherapy thrived, in part due to increasing respect from medical professionals and insurance companies
The number of training programs and new clinical psychologists increased
In the 1990s and 2000s,
The size and scope of the field continues to grow
Multiple training model options are available
Empirical support of clinical techniques, prescription privileges, and new technologies are among major contemporary issues
when did psychotherapy start to play a more prominent role in clinical psychology?
after WW2 and in 1980s, when respect for the field skyrocketed due to more respect from doctors and insurance providers.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 1: Defining Clinical Psychology
Chapter 3: Current Controversies
Chapter 4: Cultural Issues in Clinical Psychology
Chapter 5: Ethical Issues in Clinical Psychology
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