22 terms

Chapter 1 (Psych 200)

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Nature vs nurture
The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (__________) and experiential or environmental influences (_____________) determine the kind of person you are
Continuity vs discontinuity
Whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the lifespan (___________) or series of abrupt shifts (_________________)
Universal vs context-specific issue
Whether there is just one path of development or several paths
Sources that affect development
- Biological forces
- Psychological forces
- Sociocultural forces
- Life-cycle forces
Psychodynamic theory
- Freud: His theory is that personality emerges from conflicts that children experience between what they want to do and what society wants them to do
- Erikson: He proposed that the life cycle in composed of eight stages. Each stage reflects the challenge people face at a particular age.
Learning theory
- Behaviorism (Skinner): Consequences of a behavior determine whether or not that behavior is repeated in a future
- Social-learning (Bandura): Learning occurs through imitation or observational learning
Cognitive-developmental theory
- Piaget: Children create theories about the world and test them out through experience
- Vygotsky: Every aspect of a child's development must be considered against the backdrop of culture
Ecological and systems theory
Bronfenbrenner: People are embedded into four levels of environment
Naturalistic observation
Observing a person in a real life situation
Structured observation
Creating a setting to bring out the behavior of interest
Self-reports (questionnaires, interviews)
People's answers to questions about the topic of interest
- Written answers in a questionnaire
- Oral answers in a interview
- Answers are only as good as the person's memory and desire to answer honestly
Physiological measures
Measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state (Brain imaging; heart rate monitoring)
Reliability
Extent to a which a measure provides a consistent index of characteristic
Validity
The extent to which a measure assesses what the researcher thinks it is assessing
Experimental designs
Correlational studies and experimental studies
Correlational studies
- Relationships between variables that exist in naturally in the world
- Correlations (-1.0 to +1.0) - does not mean causation (may be a 3rd variable)
Experimental studies
Systematic ways of manipulating the independent variables in order to cause a particular behavior
3 designs for studying development
Longitudinal, cross-sectional, sequential
Longitudinal
Same individuals are tested throughout their lives
Cross-sectional
Tests people of different ages at the same time
Sequential
A complex design that combines both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods
Theories of human development
Psychodynamic theory, learning theory, cognitive-development theory, ecological and systems theory and life perspective and related theories