37 terms

Chapter 2 (Psych 200)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Chromosomes
Structures that contain genetic material
DNA
The molecule that composes one chromosome and is the biochemical basis of heredity
Genes
The biochemical instruction that is produced by a group of chemical compounds within a strand of DNA
Genotype
A person's complete set of genes
Phenotype
Observable features that result from the interaction between a person's genes and the environment
Alleles
Variations of genes
Homozygous
Alleles are the same
Heterozygous
Alleles are different
Down syndrome
Extra 21st chromosome
Identical twins (monozygotic)
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
Fraternal twins (dizygotic)
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; no genetically closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
Interaction between heredity and environment
Ex. PKU and early menstruation
Niche-picking
The process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one's genetic makeup
Prenatal development
Zygote period -> embryo period -> fetus
Amniotic sack
Filled with fluid that cushions the embryo and provides a constant temperature
Umbilical cord
Contains blood vessels that run from placenta to embryo
Nutrition
A balanced diet is essential for a pregnant woman
10-20%
Increase calorie intake ________.
Consequences of inadequate nutrition
- Premature birth and underweight
- Damage to the babies nervous system
- Baby is vulnerable to illness
Stress
- Anxiety during pregnancy can lead to early birth and lower than average weight
- Children are more likely to have behavior and attention problems in preschool
How stress works
- Stress hormones reduce flow of oxygen to the fetus
- Women's immune system is weakened
- More likely to consume alcohol and smoke cigarettes when stressed and less likely to eat healthy and exercise
Age of the pregnant woman
- Pregnant teenagers and their children face many obstacles
- Generally lack good prenatal care or economic stability
- Incomplete education, poverty, and marital difficulties affect the children's development
Teratogen
An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development (ex. drugs, diseases, environmental hazards
Smoking & alcohol consumption
**Smoking during pregnancy causes damage to the fetus/ infant
- Constriction of blood vessels leads to less oxygen and nutrients reaching the fetus
- Children likely to have impaired attention, language, and cognition skills
**Regular alcohol consumption carries risks
- Fetal alcohol syndrome results in slow growth, heart problems, misshapen faces, and attentional, cognitive, and behavioral problems
Ultrasound
Use sound waves to generate a picture of the fetus
Amniocentesis
Prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through the pregnant woman's abdomen
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
A prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from part of the placenta, used to detect a suspected genetic disorder
Spina bifida
Corrected with prenatal surgery Hypothyroidism can be treated with injection of hormones
Labor and delivery
Stage 1: 12-24 hours (for 1st birth)
Stage 2: within 1 hour, baby delivered
Stage 3: lasts minutes (includes expelling placenta)
"Natural" childbirth (Dick-Read and Lamaze)
**Birth is more problem-free and rewarding when parents understand what is happening
**Natural methods of dealing with pain emphasized over medication
- Relaxation through deep breathing and visualization
- A supportive coach helps during deliver
Apgar assessments
Breathing, heart rate, muscle tone, reflexes, skin tone
Adjusting to parenthood
- Maternal post-partum irritability
- Resentment (may develop into post-partum depression
- Sleep disturbance
Birth complications
Hypoxia, premature birth, small for date babies, infant mortality - surprisingly high in US
Hypoxia
Infant does not get enough oxygen due to a disruption in blood flow through the umbilical cord
Premature birth
Preterm babies are born before the 36th week
Small for date babies
Usually result of mothers alcohol consumption or nutrition
infant mortality rate
Surprisingly high in US